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Глобальное потепление - это...

результат неконтролируемого загрязнения атмосферы
результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
средство наживы для экологических организаций



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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


00. General
  • 01. Communication, education, history, and philosophy
  • 01.10.-m Announcements, news, and organizational activities
  • 01.10.Cr Announcements, news, and awards
  • 01.10.Fv Conferences, lectures, and institutes
  • 01.10.Hx Physics organizational activities
  • 01.20.+x Communication forms and techniques (written, oral, electronic, etc.)
  • 01.30.-y Physics literature and publications
  • 01.30.Bb Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)
  • 01.30.Cc Conference proceedings
  • 01.30.Ee Monographs and collections
  • 01.30.Kj Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations
  • 01.30.Mm Textbooks for graduates and researchers
  • 01.30.Pp Textbooks for undergraduates
  • 01.30.Rr Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters
  • 01.30.Tt Bibliographies
  • 01.30.Vv Book reviews
  • 01.30.Xx Publications in electronic media
  • 01.40.-d Education
  • 01.40.Di Course design and evaluation
  • 01.40.Ej Science in elementary and secondary school
  • 01.40.Fk Physics education research (cognition, problem solving, etc.)
  • 01.40.Gm Curricula; teaching methods, strategies, theory of testing and evaluation
  • 01.40.Jp Teacher training
  • 01.50.-i Educational aids
  • 01.50.Fr Audio and visual aids, films
  • 01.50.Ht Instructional computer use
  • 01.50.Kw Techniques of testing
  • 01.50.Lc Laboratory computer use
  • 01.50.My Demonstration experiments and apparatus
  • 01.50.Pa Laboratory experiments and apparatus
  • 01.50.Qb Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation
  • 01.50.Wg Physics of toys
  • 01.52.+r National and international laboratory facilities
  • 01.55.+b General physics
  • 01.60.+q Biographies, tributes, personal notes, and obituaries
  • 01.65.+g History of science
  • 01.70.+w Philosophy of science
  • 01.75.+m Science and society
  • 01.78.+p Science and government (funding, politics, etc.)
  • 01.80.+b Physics of sports
  • 01.90.+g Other topics of general interest (restricted to new topics in section 01)
  • 02. Mathematical methods in physics
  • 02.10.-v Logic, set theory, and algebra
  • 02.10.Ab Logic and set theory
  • 02.10.De Algebraic structures and number theory
  • 02.10.Hh Rings and algebras
  • 02.10.Kn Knot theory
  • 02.10.Ox Combinatorics; graph theory
  • 02.10.Ud Linear algebra
  • 02.10.Xm Multilinear algebra
  • 02.10.Yn Matrix theory
  • 02.20.-a Group theory
  • 02.20.Bb General structures of groups
  • 02.20.Hj Classical groups
  • 02.20.Qs General properties, structure, and representation of Lie groups
  • 02.20.Rt Discrete subgroups of Lie groups
  • 02.20.Sv Lie algebras of Lie groups
  • 02.20.Tw Infinite-dimensional Lie groups
  • 02.20.Uw Quantum groups
  • 02.30.-f Function theory, analysis
  • 02.30.Cj Measure and integration
  • 02.30.Em Potential theory
  • 02.30.Fn Several complex variables and analytic spaces
  • 02.30.Gp Special functions
  • 02.30.Hq Ordinary differential equations
  • 02.30.Ik Integrable systems
  • 02.30.Jr Partial differential equations
  • 02.30.Ks Delay and functional equations
  • 02.30.Lt Sequences, series, and summability
  • 02.30.Mv Approximations and expansions
  • 02.30.Nw Fourier analysis
  • 02.30.Oz Bifurcation theory
  • 02.30.Px Abstract harmonic analysis
  • 02.30.Rz Integral equations
  • 02.30.Sa Functional analysis
  • 02.30.Tb Operator theory
  • 02.30.Uu Integral transforms
  • 02.30.Vv Operational calculus
  • 02.30.Xx Calculus of variations
  • 02.30.Yy Control theory
  • 02.30.Zz Inverse problems
  • 02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology
  • 02.40.Dr Euclidean and projective geometries
  • 02.40.Ft Convex sets and geometric inequalities
  • 02.40.Gh Noncommutative geometry
  • 02.40.Hw Classical differential geometry
  • 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries
  • 02.40.Ma Global differential geometry
  • 02.40.Pc General topology
  • 02.40.Re Algebraic topology
  • 02.40.Sf Manifolds and cell complexes
  • 02.40.Tt Complex manifolds
  • 02.40.Vh Global analysis and analysis on manifolds
  • 02.40.Xx Singularity theory
  • 02.40.Yy Geometric mechanics
  • 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
  • 02.50.Cw Probability theory
  • 02.50.Ey Stochastic processes
  • 02.50.Fz Stochastic analysis
  • 02.50.Ga Markov processes
  • 02.50.Le Decision theory and game theory
  • 02.50.Ng Distribution theory and Monte Carlo studies
  • 02.50.Sk Multivariate analysis
  • 02.50.Tt Inference methods
  • 02.60.-x Numerical approximation and analysis
  • 02.60.Cb Numerical simulation; solution of equations
  • 02.60.Dc Numerical linear algebra
  • 02.60.Ed Interpolation; curve fitting
  • 02.60.Gf Algorithms for functional approximation
  • 02.60.Jh Numerical differentiation and integration
  • 02.60.Lj Ordinary and partial differential equations; boundary value problems
  • 02.60.Nm Integral and integrodifferential equations
  • 02.60.Pn Numerical optimization
  • 02.70.-c Computational techniques
  • 02.70.Bf Finite-difference methods
  • 02.70.Dh Finite-element and Galerkin methods
  • 02.70.Hm Spectral methods
  • 02.70.Jn Collocation methods
  • 02.70.Ns Molecular dynamics and particle methods
  • 02.70.Pt Boundary-integral methods
  • 02.70.Rr General statistical methods
  • 02.70.Ss Quantum Monte Carlo methods
  • 02.70.Tt Justifications or modifications of Monte Carlo methods
  • 02.70.Uu Applications of Monte Carlo methods
  • 02.70.Wz Symbolic computation (computer algebra)
  • 02.90.+p Other topics in mathematical methods in physics (restricted to new topics in section 02)
  • 03. Quantum mechanics, field theories, and special relativity
  • 03.30.+p Special relativity
  • 03.50.-z Classical field theories
  • 03.50.De Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell equations
  • 03.50.Kk Other special classical field theories
  • 03.65.-w Quantum mechanics
  • 03.65.Ca Formalism
  • 03.65.Db Functional analytical methods
  • 03.65.Fd Algebraic methods
  • 03.65.Ge Solutions of wave equations: bound states
  • 03.65.Nk Scattering theory
  • 03.65.Pm Relativistic wave equations
  • 03.65.Sq Semiclassical theories and applications
  • 03.65.Ta Foundations of quantum mechanics; measurement theory
  • 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.)
  • 03.65.Vf Phases: geometric; dynamic or topological
  • 03.65.Wj State reconstruction, quantum tomography
  • 03.65.Xp Tunneling, traversal time, quantum Zeno dynamics
  • 03.65.Yz Decoherence; open systems; quantum statistical methods
  • 03.67.-a Quantum information
  • 03.67.Dd Quantum cryptography
  • 03.67.Hk Quantum communication
  • 03.67.Lx Quantum computation
  • 03.67.Mn Entanglement production, characterization, and manipulation
  • 03.67.Pp Quantum error correction and other methods for protection against decoherence
  • 03.70.+k Theory of quantized fields
  • 03.75.-b Matter waves
  • 03.75.Be Atom and neutron optics
  • 03.75.Dg Atom and neutron interferometry
  • 03.75.Gg Entanglement and decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensates
  • 03.75.Hh Static properties of condensates; thermodynamical, statistical and structural properties
  • 03.75.Kk Dynamic properties of condensates; collective and hydrodynamic excitations, superfluid flow
  • 03.75.Lm Tunneling, Josephson effect, Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, solitons, vortices and opological excitations
  • 03.75.Mn Multicomponent condensates; spinor condensates
  • 03.75.Nt Other Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena
  • 03.75.Pp Atom lasers
  • 03.75.Ss Degenerate Fermi gases
  • 04. General relativity and gravitation
  • 04.20.-q Classical general relativity
  • 04.20.Cv Fundamental problems and general formalism
  • 04.20.Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship
  • 04.20.Ex Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions
  • 04.20.Fy Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles
  • 04.20.Gz Spacetime topology, causal structure, spinor structure
  • 04.20.Ha Asymptotic structure
  • 04.20.Jb Exact solutions
  • 04.25.-g Approximation methods; equations of motion
  • 04.25.Dm Numerical relativity
  • 04.25.Nx Post-Newtonian approximation; perturbation theory; related approximations
  • 04.30.-w Gravitational waves: theory
  • 04.30.Db Wave generation and sources
  • 04.30.Nk Wave propagation and interactions
  • 04.40.-b Self-gravitating systems; continuous media and classical fields in curved spacetime
  • 04.40.Dg Relativistic stars: structure, stability, and oscillations
  • 04.40.Nr Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields
  • 04.50.+h Gravity in more than four dimensions, Kaluza-Klein theory, unified field theories; alternative theories of gravity
  • 04.60.-m Quantum gravity
  • 04.60.Ds Canonical quantization
  • 04.60.Gw Covariant and sum-over-histories quantization
  • 04.60.Kz Lower dimensional models; minisuperspace models
  • 04.60.Nc Lattice and discrete methods
  • 04.60.Pp Loop quantum gravity, quantum geometry, spin foams
  • 04.62.+v Quantum field theory in curved spacetime
  • 04.65.+e Supergravity
  • 04.70.-s Physics of black holes
  • 04.70.Bw Classical black holes
  • 04.70.Dy Quantum aspects of black holes, evaporation, thermodynamics
  • 04.80.-y Experimental studies of gravity
  • 04.80.Cc Experimental tests of gravitational theories
  • 04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments
  • 04.90.+e Other topics in general relativity and gravitation (restricted to new topics in section 04)
  • 05. Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems
  • 05.10.-a Computational methods in statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics
  • 05.10.Cc Renormalization group methods
  • 05.10.Gg Stochastic analysis methods (Fokker-Planck, Langevin, etc.)
  • 05.10.Ln Monte Carlo methods
  • 05.20.-y Classical statistical mechanics
  • 05.20.Dd Kinetic theory
  • 05.20.Gg Classical ensemble theory
  • 05.20.Jj Statistical mechanics of classical fluids
  • 05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics
  • 05.30.Ch Quantum ensemble theory
  • 05.30.Fk Fermion systems and electron gas
  • 05.30.Jp Boson systems
  • 05.30.Pr Fractional statistics systems (anyons, etc.)
  • 05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion
  • 05.40.Ca Noise
  • 05.40.Fb Random walks and Levy flights
  • 05.40.Jc Brownian motion
  • 05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear dynamical systems
  • 05.45.Ac Low-dimensional chaos
  • 05.45.Df Fractals
  • 05.45.Gg Control of chaos, applications of chaos
  • 05.45.Jn High-dimensional chaos
  • 05.45.Mt Quantum chaos; semiclassical methods
  • 05.45.Pq Numerical simulations of chaotic systems
  • 05.45.Ra Coupled map lattices
  • 05.45.Tp Time series analysis
  • 05.45.Vx Communication using chaos
  • 05.45.Xt Synchronization; coupled oscillators
  • 05.45.Yv Solitons
  • 05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics (Ising, Potts, etc.)
  • 05.60.-k Transport processes
  • 05.60.Cd Classical transport
  • 05.60.Gg Quantum transport
  • 05.65.+b Self-organized systems
  • 05.70.-a Thermodynamics
  • 05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state
  • 05.70.Fh Phase transitions: general studies
  • 05.70.Jk Critical point phenomena
  • 05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics
  • 05.70.Np Interface and surface thermodynamics
  • 05.90.+m Other topics in statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems (restricted to new topics in section 05)
  • 06. Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
  • 06.20.-f Metrology
  • 06.20.Dk Measurement and error theory
  • 06.20.Fn Units and standards
  • 06.20.Jr Determination of fundamental constants
  • 06.30.-k Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy
  • 06.30.Bp Spatial dimensions (e.g., position, lengths, volume, angles, and displacements)
  • 06.30.Dr Mass and density
  • 06.30.Ft Time and frequency
  • 06.30.Gv Velocity, acceleration, and rotation
  • 06.60.-c Laboratory procedures
  • 06.60.Ei Sample preparation (including design of sample holders)
  • 06.60.Jn High-speed techniques (microsecond to femtosecond)
  • 06.60.Mr Testing and inspecting procedures
  • 06.60.Sx Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling
  • 06.60.Vz Workshop procedures (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.)
  • 06.60.Wa Laboratory safety procedures
  • 06.90.+v Other topics in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures (restricted to new topics in section 06)
  • 07. Instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy
  • 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics
  • 07.05.Bx Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities
  • 07.05.Dz Control systems
  • 07.05.Fb Design of experiments
  • 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software
  • 07.05.Kf Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management
  • 07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence
  • 07.05.Pj Image processing
  • 07.05.Rm Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation
  • 07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation
  • 07.05.Wr Computer interfaces
  • 07.07.-a General equipment
  • 07.07.Df Sensors (chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.); remote sensing
  • 07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.
  • 07.07.Mp Transducers
  • 07.07.Tw Servo and control equipment; robots
  • 07.07.Vx Hygrometers
  • 07.10.-h Mechanical instruments and equipment
  • 07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems
  • 07.10.Fq Vibration isolation
  • 07.10.Lw Balance systems, tensile machines, etc.
  • 07.10.Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque
  • 07.20.-n Thermal instruments and apparatus
  • 07.20.Dt Thermometers
  • 07.20.Fw Calorimeters
  • 07.20.Hy Furnaces; heaters
  • 07.20.Ka High-temperature instrumentation; pyrometers
  • 07.20.Mc Cryogenics; refrigerators, low-temperature equipment
  • 07.20.Pe Heat engines; heat pumps; heat pipes
  • 07.30.-t Vacuum apparatus
  • 07.30.Bx Degasification, residual gas
  • 07.30.Cy Vacuum pumps
  • 07.30.Dz Vacuum gauges
  • 07.30.Hd Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors
  • 07.30.Kf Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials
  • 07.35.+k High-pressure apparatus; shock tubes; diamond anvil cells
  • 07.50.-e Electrical and electronic instruments and components
  • 07.50.Ek Circuits and circuit components
  • 07.50.Hp Electrical noise and shielding equipment
  • 07.50.Ls Electrometers
  • 07.50.Qx Signal processing electronics
  • 07.55.-w Magnetic instruments and components
  • 07.55.Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets
  • 07.55.Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements
  • 07.55.Jg Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements
  • 07.55.Nk Magnetic shielding in instruments
  • 07.57.-c Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave instruments and equipment
  • 07.57.Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources
  • 07.57.Kp Bolometers; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors
  • 07.57.Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
  • 07.57.Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
  • 07.60.-j Optical instruments and equipment
  • 07.60.Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters
  • 07.60.Fs Polarimeters and ellipsometers
  • 07.60.Hv Refractometers and reflectometers
  • 07.60.Ly Interferometers
  • 07.60.Pb Conventional optical microscopes
  • 07.60.Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers
  • 07.60.Vg Fiber-optic instruments
  • 07.64.+z Acoustic instruments and equipment
  • 07.68.+m Photography, photographic instruments; xerography
  • 07.75.+h Mass spectrometers
  • 07.77.-n Atomic, molecular, and charged-particle sources and detectors
  • 07.77.Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors
  • 07.77.Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors
  • 07.78.+s Electron, positron, and ion microscopes; electron diffractometers
  • 07.79.-v Scanning probe microscopes and components
  • 07.79.Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes
  • 07.79.Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes
  • 07.79.Lh Atomic force microscopes
  • 07.79.Pk Magnetic force microscopes
  • 07.79.Sp Friction force microscopes
  • 07.81.+a Electron and ion spectrometers
  • 07.85.-m X- and gamma-ray instruments
  • 07.85.Fv X- and gamma-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors
  • 07.85.Jy Diffractometers
  • 07.85.Nc X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers
  • 07.85.Qe Synchrotron radiation instrumentation
  • 07.85.Tt X-ray microscopes
  • 07.87.+v Spaceborne and space research instruments, apparatus, and components (satellites, space vehicles, etc.)
  • 07.88.+y Instruments for environmental pollution measurements
  • 07.89.+b Environmental effects on instruments (e.g., radiation and pollution effects)
  • 07.90.+c Other topics in instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy (restricted to new topics in section 07)
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