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Глобальное потепление - это...

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результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
средство наживы для экологических организаций



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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


40. Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics, and Fluid Dynamics
  • 41. Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
  • 41.20.-q Applied classical electromagnetism
  • 41.20.Cv Electrostatics; Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary-value problems
  • 41.20.Gz Magnetostatics; magnetic shielding, magnetic induction, boundary-value problems
  • 41.20.Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation
  • 41.50.+h X-ray beams and x-ray optics
  • 41.60.-m Radiation by moving charges
  • 41.60.Ap Synchrotron radiation
  • 41.60.Bq Cherenkov radiation
  • 41.60.Cr Free-electron lasers
  • 41.75.-i Charged-particle beams
  • 41.75.Ak Positive-ion beams
  • 41.75.Cn Negative-ion beams
  • 41.75.Fr Electron and positron beams
  • 41.75.Ht Relativistic electron and positron beams
  • 41.75.Jv Laser-driven acceleration
  • 41.75.Lx Other advanced accelerator concepts
  • 41.85.-p Beam optics
  • 41.85.Ar Beam extraction, beam injection
  • 41.85.Ct Beam shaping, beam splitting
  • 41.85.Ew Beam profile, beam intensity
  • 41.85.Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations
  • 41.85.Ja Beam transport
  • 41.85.Lc Beam focusing and bending magnets, wiggler magnets, and quadrupoles
  • 41.85.Ne Electrostatic lenses, septa
  • 41.85.Qg Beam analyzers, beam monitors, and Faraday cups
  • 41.85.Si Beam collimators, monochromators
  • 41.90.+e Other topics in electromagnetism; electron and ion optics (restricted to new topics in section 41)
  • 42. Optics
  • 42.15.-i Geometrical optics
  • 42.15.Dp Wave fronts and ray tracing
  • 42.15.Eq Optical system design
  • 42.15.Fr Aberrations
  • 42.25.-p Wave optics
  • 42.25.Bs Wave propagation, transmission and absorption
  • 42.25.Dd Wave propagation in random media
  • 42.25.Fx Diffraction and scattering
  • 42.25.Gy Edge and boundary effects; reflection and refraction
  • 42.25.Hz Interference
  • 42.25.Ja Polarization
  • 42.25.Kb Coherence
  • 42.25.Lc Birefringence
  • 42.30.-d Imaging and optical processing
  • 42.30.Kq Fourier optics
  • 42.30.Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions
  • 42.30.Ms Speckle and moire patterns
  • 42.30.Rx Phase retrieval
  • 42.30.Sy Pattern recognition
  • 42.30.Tz Computer vision; robotic vision
  • 42.30.Va Image forming and processing
  • 42.30.Wb Image reconstruction; tomography
  • 42.40.-i Holography
  • 42.40.Eq Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings
  • 42.40.Ht Hologram recording and readout methods
  • 42.40.Jv Computer-generated holograms
  • 42.40.Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques
  • 42.40.Lx Diffraction efficiency, resolution, and other hologram characteristics
  • 42.40.My Applications
  • 42.40.Pa Volume holograms
  • 42.50.-p Quantum optics
  • 42.50.Ar Photon statistics and coherence theory
  • 42.50.Ct Quantum description of interaction of light and matter; related experiments
  • 42.50.Dv Nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, including entangled photon states; quantum state engineering and measurements
  • 42.50.Fx Cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems
  • 42.50.Gy Effects of atomic coherence on propagation, absorption, and amplification of light; electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption
  • 42.50.Hz Strong-field excitation of optical transitions in quantum systems; multiphoton processes; dynamic Stark shift
  • 42.50.Lc Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps
  • 42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency
  • 42.50.Nn Quantum optical phenomena in absorbing, dispersive and conducting media
  • 42.50.Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers
  • 42.50.St Nonclassical interferometry, subwavelength lithography
  • 42.50.Vk Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, electrons, and ions
  • 42.50.Xa Optical tests of quantum theory
  • 42.55.-f Lasers
  • 42.55.Ah General laser theory
  • 42.55.Ks Chemical lasers
  • 42.55.Lt Gas lasers including excimer and metal-vapor lasers
  • 42.55.Mv Dye lasers
  • 42.55.Px Semiconductor lasers; laser diodes
  • 42.55.Rz Doped-insulator lasers and other solid state lasers
  • 42.55.Sa Microcavity and microdisk lasers
  • 42.55.Tv Photonic crystal lasers and coherent effects
  • 42.55.Vc X- and gamma-ray lasers
  • 42.55.Wd Fiber lasers
  • 42.55.Xi Diode-pumped lasers
  • 42.55.Ye Raman lasers
  • 42.55.Zz Random lasers
  • 42.60.-v Laser optical systems: design and operation
  • 42.60.By Design of specific laser systems
  • 42.60.Da Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings
  • 42.60.Fc Modulation, tuning, and mode locking
  • 42.60.Gd Q-switching
  • 42.60.Jf Beam characteristics: profile, intensity, and power; spatial pattern formation
  • 42.60.Lh Efficiency, stability, gain, and other operational parameters
  • 42.60.Mi Dynamical laser instabilities; noisy laser behavior
  • 42.60.Pk Continuous operation
  • 42.60.Rn Relaxation oscillations and long pulse operation
  • 42.62.-b Laser applications
  • 42.62.Be Biological and medical applications
  • 42.62.Cf Industrial applications
  • 42.62.Eh Metrological applications; optical frequency synthesizers for precision spectroscopy
  • 42.62.Fi Laser spectroscopy
  • 42.65.-k Nonlinear optics
  • 42.65.An Optical susceptibility, hyperpolarizability
  • 42.65.Dr Stimulated Raman scattering; CARS
  • 42.65.Es Stimulated Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering
  • 42.65.Hw Phase conjugation; photorefractive and Kerr effects
  • 42.65.Jx Beam trapping, self-focusing and defocusing; self-phase modulation
  • 42.65.Ky Frequency conversion; harmonic generation, including higher-order harmonic generation
  • 42.65.Lm Parametric down conversion and production of entangled photons
  • 42.65.Pc Optical bistability, multistability, and switching, including local field effects
  • 42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression
  • 42.65.Sf Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos and complexity, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics
  • 42.65.Tg Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves
  • 42.65.Wi Nonlinear waveguides
  • 42.65.Yj Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers
  • 42.66.-p Physiological optics
  • 42.66.Ct Anatomy and optics of eye
  • 42.66.Ew Physiology of eye; optic-nerve structure and function
  • 42.66.Lc Vision: light detection, adaptation, and discrimination
  • 42.66.Ne Color vision: color detection, adaptation, and discrimination
  • 42.66.Qg Scales for light and color detection
  • 42.66.Si Psychophysics of vision, visual perception; binocular vision
  • 42.68.-w Atmospheric and ocean optics
  • 42.68.Ay Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer
  • 42.68.Bz Atmospheric turbulence effects
  • 42.68.Ca Spectral absorption by atmospheric gases
  • 42.68.Ge Effects of clouds and water; ice crystal phenomena
  • 42.68.Jg Effects of aerosols
  • 42.68.Kh Effects of air pollution
  • 42.68.Mj Scattering, polarization
  • 42.68.Sq Image transmission and formation
  • 42.68.Wt Remote sensing; LIDAR and adaptive systems
  • 42.68.Xy Ocean optics
  • 42.70.-a Optical materials
  • 42.70.Ce Glasses, quartz
  • 42.70.Df Liquid crystals
  • 42.70.Gi Light-sensitive materials
  • 42.70.Hj Laser materials
  • 42.70.Jk Polymers and organics
  • 42.70.Km Infrared transmitting materials
  • 42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media
  • 42.70.Mp Nonlinear optical crystals
  • 42.70.Nq Other nonlinear optical materials; photorefractive and semiconductor materials
  • 42.70.Qs Photonic bandgap materials
  • 42.72.-g Optical sources and standards
  • 42.72.Ai Infrared sources
  • 42.72.Bj Visible and ultraviolet sources
  • 42.79.-e Optical elements, devices, and systems
  • 42.79.Ag Apertures, collimators
  • 42.79.Bh Lenses, prisms and mirrors
  • 42.79.Ci Filters, zone plates, and polarizers
  • 42.79.Dj Gratings
  • 42.79.Ek Solar collectors and concentrators
  • 42.79.Fm Reflectors, beam splitters, and deflectors
  • 42.79.Gn Optical waveguides and couplers
  • 42.79.Hp Optical processors, correlators, and modulators
  • 42.79.Jq Acousto-optical devices
  • 42.79.Kr Display devices, liquid-crystal devices
  • 42.79.Ls Scanners, image intensifiers, and image converters
  • 42.79.Mt Schlieren devices
  • 42.79.Nv Optical frequency converters
  • 42.79.Pw Imaging detectors and sensors
  • 42.79.Qx Range finders, remote sensing devices; laser Doppler velocimeters, SAR, and LIDAR
  • 42.79.Ry Gradient-index (GRIN) devices
  • 42.79.Sz Optical communication systems, multiplexers, and demultiplexers
  • 42.79.Ta Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks
  • 42.79.Vb Optical storage systems, optical disks
  • 42.79.Wc Optical coatings
  • 42.81.-i Fiber optics
  • 42.81.Bm Fabrication, cladding, and splicing
  • 42.81.Cn Fiber testing and measurement of fiber parameters
  • 42.81.Dp Propagation, scattering, and losses; solitons
  • 42.81.Gs Birefringence, polarization
  • 42.81.Ht Gradient-index (GRIN) fiber devices
  • 42.81.Pa Sensors, gyros
  • 42.81.Qb Fiber waveguides, couplers, and arrays
  • 42.81.Uv Fiber networks
  • 42.81.Wg Other fiber-optical devices
  • 42.82.-m Integrated optics
  • 42.82.Bq Design and performance testing of integrated-optical systems
  • 42.82.Cr Fabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer
  • 42.82.Ds Interconnects, including holographic interconnects
  • 42.82.Et Waveguides, couplers, and arrays
  • 42.82.Fv Hybrid systems
  • 42.82.Gw Other integrated-optical elements and systems
  • 42.86.+b Optical workshop techniques
  • 42.87.-d Optical testing techniques
  • 42.87.Bg Phase shifting interferometry
  • 42.88.+h Environmental and radiation effects on optical elements, devices, and systems
  • 42.90.+m Other topics in optics (restricted to new topics in section 42)
  • 43. Acoustics
  • 43.20.+g General linear acoustics
  • 43.25.+y Nonlinear acoustics
  • 43.28.+h Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
  • 43.30.+m Underwater sound
  • 43.35.+d Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
  • 43.38.+n Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
  • 43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.50.+y Noise: its effects and control
  • 43.55.+p Architectural acoustics
  • 43.58.+z Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
  • 43.60.+d Acoustic signal processing
  • 43.64.+r Physiological acoustics
  • 43.66.+y Psychological acoustics
  • 43.70.+i Speech production
  • 43.71.+m Speech perception
  • 43.72.+q Speech processing and communication systems
  • 43.75.+a Music and musical instruments
  • 43.80.+p Bioacoustics
  • 43.90.+v Other topics in acoustics (restricted to new topics in section 43)
  • 44. Heat transfer
  • 44.05.+e Analytical and numerical techniques
  • 44.10.+i Heat conduction
  • 44.15.+a Channel and internal heat flow
  • 44.20.+b Boundary layer heat flow
  • 44.25.+f Natural convection
  • 44.27.+g Forced convection
  • 44.30.+v Heat flow in porous media
  • 44.35.+c Heat flow in multiphase systems
  • 44.40.+a Thermal radiation
  • 44.90.+c Other topics in heat transfer (restricted to new topics in section 44)
  • 45. Classical mechanics of discrete systems
  • 45.05.+x General theory of classical mechanics of discrete systems
  • 45.10.-b Computational methods in classical mechanics
  • 45.10.Db Variational and optimization methods
  • 45.10.Hj Perturbation and fractional calculus methods
  • 45.10.Na Geometrical and tensorial methods
  • 45.20.-d Formalisms in classical mechanics
  • 45.20.Dd Newtonian mechanics
  • 45.20.Jj Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics
  • 45.30.+s General linear dynamical systems
  • 45.40.-f Dynamics and kinematics of rigid bodies
  • 45.40.Cc Rigid body and gyroscope motion
  • 45.40.Gj Ballistics (projectiles; rockets)
  • 45.40.Ln Robotics
  • 45.50.-j Dynamics and kinematics of a particle and a system of particles
  • 45.50.Dd General motion
  • 45.50.Jf Few- and many-body systems
  • 45.50.Pk Celestial mechanics
  • 45.50.Tn Collisions
  • 45.70.-n Granular systems
  • 45.70.Cc Static sandpiles; granular compaction
  • 45.70.Ht Avalanches
  • 45.70.Mg Granular flow: mixing, segregation and stratification
  • 45.70.Qj Pattern formation
  • 45.70.Vn Granular models of complex systems; traffic flow
  • 45.80.+r Control of mechanical systems
  • 45.90.+t Other topics in classical mechanics of discrete systems (restricted to new topics in section 45)
  • 46. Continuum mechanics of solids
  • 46.05.+b General theory of continuum mechanics of solids
  • 46.15.-x Computational methods in continuum mechanics
  • 46.15.Cc Variational and optimizational methods
  • 46.15.Ff Perturbation and complex analysis methods
  • 46.25.-y Static elasticity
  • 46.25.Cc Theoretical studies
  • 46.25.Hf Thermoelasticity and electromagnetic elasticity (electroelasticity, magnetoelasticity)
  • 46.32.+x Static buckling and instability
  • 46.35.+z Viscoelasticity, plasticity, viscoplasticity
  • 46.40.-f Vibrations and mechanical waves
  • 46.40.Cd Mechanical wave propagation (including diffraction, scattering, and dispersion)
  • 46.40.Ff Resonance, damping and dynamic stability
  • 46.40.Jj Aeroelasticity and hydroelasticity
  • 46.50.+a Fracture mechanics, fatigue and cracks
  • 46.55.+d Tribology and mechanical contacts
  • 46.65.+g Random phenomena and media
  • 46.70.-p Application of continuum mechanics to structures
  • 46.70.De Beams, plates and shells
  • 46.70.Hg Membranes, rods and strings
  • 46.70.Lk Other structures
  • 46.80.+j Measurement methods and techniques in continuum mechanics of solids
  • 46.90.+s Other topics in continuum mechanics of solids (restricted to new topics in section 46)
  • 47. Fluid dynamics
  • 47.10.+g General theory
  • 47.11.+j Computational methods in fluid dynamics
  • 47.15.-x Laminar flows
  • 47.15.Cb Laminar boundary layers
  • 47.15.Fe Stability of laminar flows
  • 47.15.Gf Low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows
  • 47.15.Hg Potential flows
  • 47.15.Ki Inviscid flows with vorticity
  • 47.15.Pn Laminar suspensions
  • 47.15.Rq Laminar flows in cavities
  • 47.17.+e Mechanical properties of fluids
  • 47.20.-k Hydrodynamic stability
  • 47.20.Bp Buoyancy-driven instability
  • 47.20.Cq Inviscid instability
  • 47.20.Dr Surface-tension-driven instability
  • 47.20.Ft Instability of shear flows
  • 47.20.Gv Viscous instability
  • 47.20.Hw Morphological instability; phase changes
  • 47.20.Ky Nonlinearity (including bifurcation theory)
  • 47.20.Lz Secondary instability
  • 47.20.Ma Interfacial instability
  • 47.20.Pc Receptivity
  • 47.27.-i Turbulent flows, convection, and heat transfer
  • 47.27.Ak Fundamentals
  • 47.27.Cn Transition to turbulence
  • 47.27.Eq Turbulence simulation and modeling
  • 47.27.Gs Isotropic turbulence; homogeneous turbulence
  • 47.27.Jv High-Reynolds-number turbulence
  • 47.27.Lx Wall-bounded thin shear flows
  • 47.27.Nz Boundary layer and shear turbulence
  • 47.27.Pa Thick shear flows
  • 47.27.Qb Turbulent diffusion
  • 47.27.Rc Turbulence control
  • 47.27.Sd Noise (turbulence generated)
  • 47.27.Te Convection and heat transfer
  • 47.27.Vf Wakes
  • 47.27.Wg Jets
  • 47.32.-y Rotational flow and vorticity
  • 47.32.Cc Vortex dynamics
  • 47.32.Ff Separated flows
  • 47.35.+i Hydrodynamic waves
  • 47.37.+q Hydrodynamic aspects of superfluidity
  • 47.40.-x Compressible flows; shock and detonation phenomena
  • 47.40.Dc General subsonic flows
  • 47.40.Hg Transonic flows
  • 47.40.Ki Supersonic and hypersonic flows
  • 47.40.Nm Shock wave interactions and shock effects
  • 47.45.-n Rarefied gas dynamics
  • 47.45.Dt Free molecular flows
  • 47.45.Gx Slip flows
  • 47.45.Nd Accommodation
  • 47.50.+d Non-Newtonian fluid flows
  • 47.52.+j Chaos
  • 47.53.+n Fractals
  • 47.54.+r Pattern selection; pattern formation
  • 47.55.-t Nonhomogeneous flows
  • 47.55.Bx Cavitation
  • 47.55.Dz Drops and bubbles
  • 47.55.Hd Stratified flows
  • 47.55.Kf Multiphase and particle-laden flows
  • 47.55.Mh Flows through porous media
  • 47.60.+i Flows in ducts, channels, nozzles, and conduits
  • 47.62.+q Flow control
  • 47.65.+a Magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics
  • 47.70.-n Reactive, radiative, or nonequilibrium flows
  • 47.70.Fw Chemically reactive flows
  • 47.70.Mc Radiation gas dynamics
  • 47.70.Nd Nonequilibrium gas dynamics
  • 47.75.+f Relativistic fluid dynamics
  • 47.80.+v Instrumentation for fluid dynamics
  • 47.85.-g Applied fluid mechanics
  • 47.85.Dh Hydrodynamics, hydraulics, hydrostatics
  • 47.85.Gj Aerodynamics
  • 47.85.Kn Hydraulic and pneumatic machinery
  • 47.85.Np Fluidics
  • 47.90.+a Other topics in fluid dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 47)
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