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Глобальное потепление - это...

результат неконтролируемого загрязнения атмосферы
результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
средство наживы для экологических организаций



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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


60. Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical and Thermal Properties
  • 61. Structure of solids and liquids; crystallography
  • 61.10.-i X-ray diffraction and scattering
  • 61.10.Dp Theories of diffraction and scattering
  • 61.10.Eq X-ray scattering (including small-angle scattering)
  • 61.10.Ht X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc.
  • 61.10.Kw X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films)
  • 61.10.Nz X-ray diffraction
  • 61.12.-q Neutron diffraction and scattering
  • 61.12.Bt Theories of diffraction and scattering
  • 61.12.Ex Neutron scattering (including small-angle scattering)
  • 61.12.Ha Neutron reflectometry
  • 61.12.Ld Neutron diffraction
  • 61.14.-x Electron diffraction and scattering
  • 61.14.Dc Theories of diffraction and scattering
  • 61.14.Hg Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)
  • 61.14.Lj Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
  • 61.14.Nm Electron holography
  • 61.14.Qp X-ray photoelectron diffraction
  • 61.18.-j Other methods of structure determination
  • 61.18.Bn Atom, molecule, and ion scattering
  • 61.18.Fs Magnetic resonance techniques; Mцssbauer spectroscopy
  • 61.20.-p Structure of liquids
  • 61.20.Gy Theory and models of liquid structure
  • 61.20.Ja Computer simulation of liquid structure
  • 61.20.Lc Time-dependent properties; relaxation
  • 61.20.Ne Structure of simple liquids
  • 61.20.Qg Structure of associated liquids: electrolytes, molten salts, etc.
  • 61.25.-f Studies of specific liquid structures
  • 61.25.Bi Liquid noble gases
  • 61.25.Em Molecular liquids
  • 61.25.Hq Macromolecular and polymer solutions; polymer melts; swelling
  • 61.25.Mv Liquid metals and alloys
  • 61.30.-v Liquid crystals
  • 61.30.Cz Molecular and microscopic models and theories of liquid crystal structure
  • 61.30.Dk Continuum models and theories of liquid crystal structure
  • 61.30.Eb Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and other structures
  • 61.30.Gd Orientational order of liquid crystals; electric and magnetic field effects on order
  • 61.30.Hn Surface phenomena: alignment, anchoring, anchoring transitions, surface-induced layering, surface-induced ordering, wetting, prewetting transitions, and wetting transitions
  • 61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals
  • 61.30.Mp Blue phases and other defect-phases
  • 61.30.Pq Microconfined liquid crystals: droplets, cylinders, randomly confined liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, and porous systems
  • 61.30.St Lyotropic phases
  • 61.30.Vx Polymer liquid crystals
  • 61.41.+e Polymers, elastomers, and plastics
  • 61.43.-j Disordered solids
  • 61.43.Bn Structural modeling: serial-addition models, computer simulation
  • 61.43.Dq Amorphous semiconductors, metals, and alloys
  • 61.43.Er Other amorphous solids
  • 61.43.Fs Glasses
  • 61.43.Gt Powders, porous materials
  • 61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates (including diffusion-limited aggregates)
  • 61.44.-n Semi-periodic solids
  • 61.44.Br Quasicrystals
  • 61.44.Fw Incommensurate crystals
  • 61.46.+w Nanoscale materials: clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals
  • 61.48.+c Fullerenes and fullerene-related materials
  • 61.50.-f Crystalline state
  • 61.50.Ah Theory of crystal structure, crystal symmetry; calculations and modeling
  • 61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects
  • 61.50.Lt Crystal binding; cohesive energy
  • 61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry
  • 61.66.-f Structure of specific crystalline solids
  • 61.66.Bi Elemental solids
  • 61.66.Dk Alloys
  • 61.66.Fn Inorganic compounds
  • 61.66.Hq Organic compounds
  • 61.68.+n Crystallographic databases
  • 61.72.-y Defects and impurities in crystals; microstructure
  • 61.72.Bb Theories and models of crystal defects
  • 61.72.Cc Kinetics of defect formation and annealing
  • 61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
  • 61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
  • 61.72.Hh Indirect evidence of dislocations and other defects (resistivity, slip, creep, strains, internal friction, EPR, NMR, etc.)
  • 61.72.Ji Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
  • 61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
  • 61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
  • 61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
  • 61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
  • 61.72.Ss Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients
  • 61.72.Tt Doping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
  • 61.72.Vv Doping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
  • 61.72.Ww Doping and impurity implantation in other materials
  • 61.72.Yx Interaction between different crystal defects; gettering effect
  • 61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for photochemical reactions, see 82.50.-m)
  • 61.80.Az Theory and models of radiation effects
  • 61.80.Ba Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation)
  • 61.80.Cb X-ray effects
  • 61.80.Ed gamma-ray effects
  • 61.80.Fe Electron and positron radiation effects
  • 61.80.Hg Neutron radiation effects
  • 61.80.Jh Ion radiation effects
  • 61.80.Lj Atom and molecule irradiation effects
  • 61.82.-d Radiation effects on specific materials
  • 61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
  • 61.82.Fk Semiconductors
  • 61.82.Ms Insulators
  • 61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
  • 61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
  • 61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
  • 61.90.+d Other topics in structure of solids and liquids; crystallography (restricted to new topics in section 61)
  • 62. Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter
  • 62.10.+s Mechanical properties of liquids
  • 62.20.-x Mechanical properties of solids
  • 62.20.Dc Elasticity, elastic constants
  • 62.20.Fe Deformation and plasticity (including yield, ductility, and superplasticity)
  • 62.20.Hg Creep
  • 62.20.Mk Fatigue, brittleness, fracture, and cracks
  • 62.20.Qp Tribology and hardness
  • 62.25.+g Mechanical properties of nanoscale materials
  • 62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations
  • 62.40.+i Anelasticity, internal friction, stress relaxation, and mechanical resonances
  • 62.50.+p High-pressure and shock wave effects in solids and liquids
  • 62.60.+v Acoustical properties of liquids
  • 62.65.+k Acoustical properties of solids
  • 62.80.+f Ultrasonic relaxation
  • 62.90.+k Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 62)
  • 63. Lattice dynamics
  • 63.10.+a General theory
  • 63.20.-e Phonons in crystal lattices
  • 63.20.Dj Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion
  • 63.20.Kr Phonon-electron and phonon-phonon interactions
  • 63.20.Ls Phonon interactions with other quasiparticles
  • 63.20.Mt Phonon-defect interactions
  • 63.20.Pw Localized modes
  • 63.20.Ry Anharmonic lattice modes
  • 63.22.+m Phonons or vibrational states in low-dimensional structures and nanoscale materials
  • 63.50.+x Vibrational states in disordered systems
  • 63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions
  • 63.90.+t Other topics in lattice dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 63)
  • 64. Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions
  • 64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria
  • 64.30.+t Equations of state of specific substances
  • 64.60.-i General studies of phase transitions
  • 64.60.Ak Renormalization-group, fractal, and percolation studies of phase transitions
  • 64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations; statistical mechanics of model systems
  • 64.60.Fr Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
  • 64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena
  • 64.60.Kw Multicritical points
  • 64.60.My Metastable phases
  • 64.60.Qb Nucleation
  • 64.70.-p Specific phase transitions
  • 64.70.Dv Solid-liquid transitions
  • 64.70.Fx Liquid-vapor transitions
  • 64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
  • 64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
  • 64.70.Kb Solid-solid transitions
  • 64.70.Md Transitions in liquid crystals
  • 64.70.Nd Structural transitions in nanoscale materials
  • 64.70.Pf Glass transitions
  • 64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
  • 64.75.+g Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation
  • 64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (restricted to new topics in section 64)
  • 65. Thermal properties of condensed matter
  • 65.20.+w Thermal properties of liquids: heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.
  • 65.40.-b Thermal properties of crystalline solids
  • 65.40.Ba Heat capacity
  • 65.40.De Thermal expansion; thermomechanical effects
  • 65.40.Gr Entropy and other thermodynamical quantities
  • 65.60.+a Thermal properties of amorphous solids and glasses: heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.
  • 65.80.+n Thermal properties of small particles, nanocrystals, nanotubes
  • 65.90.+i Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 65)
  • 66. Transport properties of condensed matter (nonelectronic)
  • 66.10.-x Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
  • 66.10.Cb Diffusion and thermal diffusion
  • 66.10.Ed Ionic conduction
  • 66.20.+d Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
  • 66.30.-h Diffusion in solids
  • 66.30.Dn Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
  • 66.30.Fq Self-diffusion in metals, semimetals, and alloys
  • 66.30.Hs Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals
  • 66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities
  • 66.30.Lw Diffusion of other defects
  • 66.30.Ny Chemical interdiffusion; diffusion barriers
  • 66.30.Pa Diffusion in nanoscale solids
  • 66.30.Qa Electromigration
  • 66.30.Xj Thermal diffusivity
  • 66.35.+a Quantum tunneling of defects
  • 66.60.+a Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids
  • 66.70.+f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves
  • 66.90.+r Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 66)
  • 67. Quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium
  • 67.20.+k Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of nondegenerate fluids (e.g., normal phase liquid 4He)
  • 67.40.-w Boson degeneracy and superfluidity of 4He
  • 67.40.Bz Phenomenology and two-fluid models
  • 67.40.Db Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
  • 67.40.Fd Dynamics of relaxation phenomena
  • 67.40.Hf Hydrodynamics in specific geometries, flow in narrow channels
  • 67.40.Jg Ions in liquid 4He
  • 67.40.Kh Thermodynamic properties
  • 67.40.Mj First sound
  • 67.40.Pm Transport processes, second and other sounds, and thermal counterflow; Kapitza resistance
  • 67.40.Rp Films and weak link transport
  • 67.40.Vs Vortices and turbulence
  • 67.40.Yv Impurities and other defects
  • 67.55.-s Normal phase of liquid 3He
  • 67.55.Cx Thermodynamic properties
  • 67.55.Fa Hydrodynamics
  • 67.55.Hc Transport properties
  • 67.55.Ig Ions in normal liquid 3He
  • 67.55.Jd Collective modes
  • 67.55.Lf Impurities
  • 67.57.-z Superfluid phase of liquid 3He
  • 67.57.Bc Thermodynamic properties
  • 67.57.De Superflow and hydrodynamics
  • 67.57.Fg Textures and vortices
  • 67.57.Gh Ions in superfluid 3He
  • 67.57.Hi Transport properties
  • 67.57.Jj Collective modes
  • 67.57.Lm Spin dynamics
  • 67.57.Np Behavior near interfaces
  • 67.57.Pq Impurities
  • 67.60.-g Mixed systems; liquid 3He, 4He mixtures
  • 67.60.Dm HeI-3He
  • 67.60.Fp HeII-3He
  • 67.60.Hr Dilute superfluid 3He in He II
  • 67.60.Js Ions in liquid 3He-4He mixtures
  • 67.65.+z Spin-polarized hydrogen and helium
  • 67.70.+n Films (including physical adsorption)
  • 67.80.-s Solid helium and related quantum crystals
  • 67.80.Cx Structure, lattice dynamics, and sound propagation
  • 67.80.Gb Thermal properties
  • 67.80.Jd Magnetic properties and nuclear magnetic resonance
  • 67.80.Mg Defects, impurities, and diffusion
  • 67.90.+z Other topics in quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium (restricted to new topics in section 67)
  • 68. Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional systems (structure and nonelectronic properties)
  • 68.03.-g Gas-liquid and vacuum-liquid interfaces
  • 68.03.Cd Surface tension and related phenomena
  • 68.03.Fg Evaporation and condensation
  • 68.03.Hj Structure, measurements and simulations
  • 68.03.Kn Dynamics (capillary waves)
  • 68.05.-n Liquid-liquid interfaces
  • 68.05.Cf Structure, measurements and simulations
  • 68.05.Gh Interfacial properties of microemulsions
  • 68.08.-p Liquid-solid interfaces
  • 68.08.Bc Wetting
  • 68.08.De Structure, measurements and simulations
  • 68.15.+e Liquid thin films
  • 68.18.-g Langmuir-Blodgett films on liquids
  • 68.18.Fg Structure: measurements and simulations
  • 68.18.Jk Phase transitions
  • 68.35.-p Solid surfaces and solid-solid interfaces: Structure and energetics
  • 68.35.Af Atomic scale friction
  • 68.35.Bs Structure of clean surfaces (reconstruction)
  • 68.35.Ct Interface structure and roughness
  • 68.35.Dv Composition, segregation; defects and impurities
  • 68.35.Fx Diffusion; interface formation
  • 68.35.Gy Mechanical properties; surface strains
  • 68.35.Iv Acoustical properties
  • 68.35.Ja Surface and interface dynamics and vibrations
  • 68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies
  • 68.35.Np Adhesion
  • 68.35.Rh Phase transitions and critical phenomena
  • 68.37.-d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
  • 68.37.Ef Scanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM)
  • 68.37.Hk Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC)
  • 68.37.Lp Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including STEM, HRTEM, etc.)
  • 68.37.Nq Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM)
  • 68.37.Ps Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • 68.37.Rt Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
  • 68.37.Tj Acoustic force microscopy
  • 68.37.Uv Near-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy
  • 68.37.Vj Field emission and field-ion microscopy
  • 68.37.Xy Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
  • 68.37.Yz X-ray microscopy
  • 68.43.-h Chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces
  • 68.43.Bc Ab initio calculations of adsorbate structure and reactions
  • 68.43.De Statistical mechanics of adsorbates
  • 68.43.Fg Adsorbate structure (binding sites, geometry)
  • 68.43.Hn Structure of assemblies of adsorbates (two- and three-dimensional clustering)
  • 68.43.Jk Diffusion of adsorbates, kinetics of coarsening and aggregation
  • 68.43.Mn Adsorption/desorption kinetics
  • 68.43.Pq Adsorbate vibrations
  • 68.43.Rs Electron stimulated desorption
  • 68.43.Tj Photon stimulated desorption
  • 68.43.Vx Thermal desorption
  • 68.47.-b Solid-gas/vacuum interfaces: types of surfaces
  • 68.47.De Metallic surfaces
  • 68.47.Fg Semiconductor surfaces
  • 68.47.Gh Oxide surfaces
  • 68.47.Jn Clusters on oxide surfaces
  • 68.47.Mn Polymer surfaces
  • 68.47.Pe Langmuir-Blodgett films on solids; polymers on surfaces; biological molecules on surfaces
  • 68.49.-h Surface characterization by particle-surface scattering
  • 68.49.Bc Atom scattering from surfaces (diffraction and energy transfer)
  • 68.49.Df Molecule scattering from surfaces (energy transfer, resonances, trapping)
  • 68.49.Fg Cluster scattering from surfaces
  • 68.49.Jk Electron scattering from surfaces
  • 68.49.Sf Ion scattering from surfaces (charge transfer, sputtering, SIMS)
  • 68.49.Uv X-ray standing waves
  • 68.55.-a Thin film structure and morphology
  • 68.55.Ac Nucleation and growth: microscopic aspects
  • 68.55.Jk Structure and morphology; thickness; crystalline orientation and texture
  • 68.55.Ln Defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc.
  • 68.55.Nq Composition and phase identification
  • 68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
  • 68.60.Bs Mechanical and acoustical properties
  • 68.60.Dv Thermal stability; thermal effects
  • 68.60.Wm Other nonelectronic physical properties
  • 68.65.-k Low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale systems: structure and nonelectronic properties
  • 68.65.Ac Multilayers
  • 68.65.Cd Superlattices
  • 68.65.Fg Quantum wells
  • 68.65.Hb Quantum dots
  • 68.65.La Quantum wires
  • 68.70.+w Whiskers and dendrites (growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties)
  • 68.90.+g Other topics in structure, and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional structures (restricted to new topics in section 68)
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