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Глобальное потепление - это...

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результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


80. Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology
  • 81. Materials science
  • 81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing and analysis
  • 81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
  • 81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors
  • 81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
  • 81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
  • 81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
  • 81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
  • 81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories (including borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides)
  • 81.05.Kf Glasses (including metallic glasses)
  • 81.05.Lg Polymers and plastics; rubber; synthetic and natural fibers; organometallic and organic materials
  • 81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites
  • 81.05.Ni Dispersion-, fiber-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites
  • 81.05.Pj Glass-based composites, vitroceramics
  • 81.05.Qk Reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites
  • 81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials
  • 81.05.Tp Fullerenes and related materials
  • 81.05.Uw Carbon, diamond, graphite
  • 81.05.Zx New materials: theory, design, and fabrication
  • 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization
  • 81.07.Bc Nanocrystalline materials
  • 81.07.De Nanotubes
  • 81.07.Lk Nanocontacts
  • 81.07.Nb Molecular nanostructures
  • 81.07.Pr Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures
  • 81.07.St Quantum wells
  • 81.07.Ta Quantum dots
  • 81.07.Vb Quantum wires
  • 81.07.Wx Nanopowders
  • 81.10.-h Methods of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth
  • 81.10.Aj Theory and models of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth, crystal morphology and orientation
  • 81.10.Bk Growth from vapor
  • 81.10.Dn Growth from solutions
  • 81.10.Fq Growth from melts; zone melting and refining
  • 81.10.Jt Growth from solid phases (including multiphase diffusion and recrystallization)
  • 81.10.Mx Growth in microgravity environments
  • 81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy
  • 81.15.Aa Theory and models of film growth
  • 81.15.Cd Deposition by sputtering
  • 81.15.Ef Vacuum deposition
  • 81.15.Fg Laser deposition
  • 81.15.Gh Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, etc.)
  • 81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy
  • 81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating
  • 81.15.Kk Vapor phase epitaxy; growth from vapor phase
  • 81.15.Lm Liquid phase epitaxy; deposition from liquid phases (melts, solutions, and surface layers on liquids)
  • 81.15.Np Solid phase epitaxy; growth from solid phases
  • 81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating
  • 81.15.Rs Spray coating techniques
  • 81.16.-c Methods of nanofabrication and processing
  • 81.16.Be Chemical synthesis methods
  • 81.16.Dn Self-assembly
  • 81.16.Fg Supramolecular and biochemical assembly
  • 81.16.Hc Catalytic methods
  • 81.16.Mk Laser-assisted deposition
  • 81.16.Nd Nanolithography
  • 81.16.Pr Nanooxidation
  • 81.16.Rf Nanoscale pattern formation
  • 81.16.Ta Atom manipulation
  • 81.20.-n Methods of materials synthesis and materials processing
  • 81.20.Ev Powder processing: powder metallurgy, compaction, sintering, mechanical alloying, and granulation
  • 81.20.Fw Sol-gel processing, precipitation
  • 81.20.Hy Forming; molding, extrusion etc.
  • 81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis
  • 81.20.Rg Aerosols in materials synthesis and processing
  • 81.20.Vj Joining; welding
  • 81.20.Wk Machining, milling
  • 81.20.Ym Purification
  • 81.30.-t Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations
  • 81.30.Bx Phase diagrams of metals and alloys
  • 81.30.Dz Phase diagrams of other materials
  • 81.30.Fb Solidification
  • 81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder
  • 81.30.Kf Martensitic transformations
  • 81.30.Mh Solid-phase precipitation
  • 81.40.-z Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure and properties
  • 81.40.Cd Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion hardening; aging
  • 81.40.Ef Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization
  • 81.40.Gh Other heat and thermomechanical treatments
  • 81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations
  • 81.40.Lm Deformation, plasticity, and creep
  • 81.40.Np Fatigue, corrosion fatigue, embrittlement, cracking, fracture and failure
  • 81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication, and wear
  • 81.40.Rs Electrical and magnetic properties (related to treatment conditions)
  • 81.40.Tv Optical and dielectric properties (related to treatment conditions)
  • 81.40.Vw Pressure treatment
  • 81.40.Wx Radiation treatment (particle and electromagnetic)
  • 81.65.-b Surface treatments
  • 81.65.Cf Surface cleaning, etching, patterning
  • 81.65.Kn Corrosion protection
  • 81.65.Lp Surface hardening: nitridation, carburization, carbonitridation
  • 81.65.Mq Oxidation
  • 81.65.Ps Polishing, grinding, surface finishing
  • 81.65.Rv Passivation
  • 81.65.Tx Gettering
  • 81.70.-q Methods of materials testing and analysis
  • 81.70.Bt Mechanical testing, impact tests, static and dynamic loads
  • 81.70.Cv Nondestructive testing: ultrasonic testing, photoacoustic testing
  • 81.70.Ex Nondestructive testing: electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing
  • 81.70.Fy Nondestructive testing: optical methods
  • 81.70.Ha Testing in microgravity environments
  • 81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
  • 81.70.Pg Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis
  • 81.70.Tx Computed tomography
  • 81.90.+c Other topics in materials science (restricted to new topics in section 81)
  • 82. Physical chemistry and chemical physics
  • 82.20.-w Chemical kinetics and dynamics
  • 82.20.Bc State selected dynamics and product distribution
  • 82.20.Db Transition state theory and statistical theories of rate constants
  • 82.20.Ej Quantum theory of reaction cross section
  • 82.20.Fd Collision theories; trajectory models
  • 82.20.Gk Electronically non-adiabatic reactions
  • 82.20.Hf Product distribution
  • 82.20.Kh Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
  • 82.20.Ln Semiclassical theory of reactions and/or energy transfer
  • 82.20.Nk Classical theories of reactions and/or energy transfer
  • 82.20.Pm Rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies
  • 82.20.Rp State to state energy transfer
  • 82.20.Sb Correlation function theory of rate constants and its applications
  • 82.20.Tr Kinetic isotope effects including muonium
  • 82.20.Uv Stochastic theories of rate constants
  • 82.20.Wt Computational modeling; simulation
  • 82.20.Xr Quantum effects in rate constants (tunneling, resonances, etc.)
  • 82.20.Yn Solvent effects on reactivity
  • 82.30.-b Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms
  • 82.30.Cf Atom and radical reactions; chain reactions; molecule-molecule reactions
  • 82.30.Fi Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions
  • 82.30.Gg Positronium chemistry
  • 82.30.Hk Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)
  • 82.30.Lp Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and fragmentation)
  • 82.30.Nr Association, addition, insertion, cluster formation
  • 82.30.Qt Isomerization and rearrangement
  • 82.30.Rs Hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic effects
  • 82.30.Vy Homogeneous catalysis in solution, polymers and zeolites
  • 82.33.-z Reactions in various media
  • 82.33.De Reactions in supercritical fluids
  • 82.33.Fg Reactions in clusters
  • 82.33.Hk Reactions on clusters
  • 82.33.Jx Reactions in zeolites
  • 82.33.Ln Reactions in sol gels, aerogels, porous media
  • 82.33.Nq Reactions in micells
  • 82.33.Pt Solid state chemistry
  • 82.33.Tb Atmospheric chemistry
  • 82.33.Vx Reactions in flames, combustion, and explosions
  • 82.33.Xj Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges)
  • 82.33.Ya Chemistry of MOCVD and other vapor deposition methods
  • 82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization
  • 82.35.Cd Conducting polymers
  • 82.35.Ej Nonlinear optics with polymers
  • 82.35.Gh Polymers on surfaces; adhesion
  • 82.35.Jk Copolymers, phase transitions, structure
  • 82.35.Lr Physical properties of polymers
  • 82.35.Np Nanoparticles in polymers
  • 82.35.Pq Biopolymers, biopolymerization
  • 82.35.Rs Polyelectrolytes
  • 82.37.-j Single molecule kinetics
  • 82.37.Gk STM and AFM manipulations of a single molecule
  • 82.37.Np Single molecule reaction kinetics, dissociation, etc.
  • 82.37.Rs Single molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules
  • 82.37.Vb Single molecule photochemistry
  • 82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems
  • 82.39.Fk Enzyme kinetics
  • 82.39.Jn Charge (electron, proton) transfer in biological systems
  • 82.39.Pj Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA bases
  • 82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems
  • 82.39.Wj Ion exchange, dialysis, osmosis, electro-osmosis, membrane processes
  • 82.40.-g Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes and techniques
  • 82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations
  • 82.40.Ck Pattern formation in reactions with diffusion, flow and heat transfer
  • 82.40.Fp Shock wave initiated reactions, high-pressure chemistry
  • 82.40.Np Temporal and spatial patterns in surface reactions
  • 82.40.Qt Complex chemical systems
  • 82.45.-h Electrochemistry and electrophoresis
  • 82.45.Aa Electrochemical synthesis
  • 82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation
  • 82.45.Cc Anodic films
  • 82.45.Fk Electrodes
  • 82.45.Gj Electrolytes
  • 82.45.Hk Electrolysis
  • 82.45.Jn Surface structure, reactivity and catalysis
  • 82.45.Mp Thin layers, films, monolayers, membranes
  • 82.45.Qr Electrodeposition and electrodissolution
  • 82.45.Rr Electroanalytical chemistry
  • 82.45.Tv Bioelectrochemistry
  • 82.45.Un Dielectric materials in electrochemistry
  • 82.45.Vp Semiconductor materials in electrochemistry
  • 82.45.Wx Polymers and organic materials in electrochemistry
  • 82.45.Xy Ceramics in electrochemistry
  • 82.45.Yz Nanostructured materials in electrochemistry
  • 82.47.-a Applied electrochemistry
  • 82.47.Aa Lithium-ion batteries
  • 82.47.Cb Lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and other batteries
  • 82.47.Ed Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
  • 82.47.Gh Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells
  • 82.47.Jk Photoelectrochemical cells, photoelectrochromic and other hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices
  • 82.47.Lh Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
  • 82.47.Nj Polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC)
  • 82.47.Pm Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC); other fuel cells
  • 82.47.Rs Electrochemical sensors
  • 82.47.Tp Electrochemical displays
  • 82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors
  • 82.47.Wx Electrochemical engineering
  • 82.50.-m Photochemistry
  • 82.50.Bc Processes caused by infrared radiation
  • 82.50.Hp Processes caused by visible and UV light
  • 82.50.Kx Processes caused by X-rays or gamma-rays
  • 82.50.Nd Control of photochemical reactions
  • 82.50.Pt Multiphoton processes
  • 82.53.-k Femtochemistry
  • 82.53.Eb Pump probe studies of photodissociation
  • 82.53.Hn Pump probe experiments with bound states
  • 82.53.Kp Coherent spectroscopy of atoms and molecules
  • 82.53.Mj Femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures
  • 82.53.Ps Femtosecond probing of biological molecules
  • 82.53.St Femtochemistry of adsorbed molecules
  • 82.53.Uv Femtosecond probes of molecules in liquids
  • 82.53.Xa Femtosecond probes of molecules in solids and of molecular solids
  • 82.56.-b Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • 82.56.Dj High resolution NMR
  • 82.56.Fk Multidemensional NMR
  • 82.56.Hg Multinuclear NMR
  • 82.56.Jn Pulse sequences in NMR
  • 82.56.Lz Diffusion
  • 82.56.Na Relaxation
  • 82.56.Pp NMR of biomolecules
  • 82.56.Ub Structure determination with NMR
  • 82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics
  • 82.60.Cx Enthalpies of combustion, reaction, and formation
  • 82.60.Fa Heat capacities and heats of phase transitions
  • 82.60.Hc Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants
  • 82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions
  • 82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation
  • 82.60.Qr Thermodynamics of nanoparticles
  • 82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces
  • 82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids
  • 82.70.Dd Colloids
  • 82.70.Gg Gels and sols
  • 82.70.Kj Emulsions and suspensions
  • 82.70.Rr Aerosols and foams
  • 82.70.Uv Surfactants, micellar solutions, vesicles, lamellae, amphiphilic systems, (hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions)
  • 82.75.-z Molecular sieves, zeolites, clathrates, and other complex solids
  • 82.75.Fq Synthesis, structure determination, structure modeling
  • 82.75.Jn Measurements and modeling of molecule migration in zeolites
  • 82.75.Mj Measurements and simulation of properties (optical, structural) of molecules in zeolites
  • 82.75.Qt Mechanism and kinetics of catalysis in zeolites (measurements or simulations)
  • 82.75.Vx Clusters in zeolites
  • 82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis
  • 82.80.Bg Chromatography
  • 82.80.Dx Analytical methods involving electronic spectroscopy
  • 82.80.Ej X-ray, Mцssbauer, and other gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis methods
  • 82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods
  • 82.80.Gk Analytical methods involving vibrational spectroscopy
  • 82.80.Ha Analytical methods involving rotational spectroscopy
  • 82.80.Jp Activation analysis and other radiochemical methods
  • 82.80.Kq Energy-conversion spectro-analytical methods (e.g., photoacoustic, photothermal, and optogalvanic pectroscopic methods)
  • 82.80.Ms Mass spectrometry (including SIMS, multiphoton ionization and resonance ionization mass spectrometry, MALDI)
  • 82.80.Nj Fourier transform mass spectrometry
  • 82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
  • 82.80.Qx Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
  • 82.80.Rt Time of flight mass spectrometry
  • 82.80.Yc Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and other methods of chemical analysis
  • 82.90.+j Other topics in physical chemistry and chemical physics (restricted to new topics in section 82)
  • 83. Rheology
  • 83.10.-y Fundamentals and theoretical
  • 83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow
  • 83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics
  • 83.10.Gr Constitutive relations
  • 83.10.Kn Reptation and tube theories
  • 83.10.Mj Molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics
  • 83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
  • 83.10.Rs Computer simulation of molecular and particle dynamics
  • 83.10.Tv Structural and phase changes
  • 83.50.-v Deformation and flow
  • 83.50.Ax Steady shear flows, viscometric flow
  • 83.50.Ha Flow in channels
  • 83.50.Jf Extensional flow and combined shear and extension
  • 83.50.Lh Slip boundary effects (interfacial and free surface flows)
  • 83.50.Rp Wall slip and apparent slip
  • 83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)
  • 83.50.Xa Mixing and blending
  • 83.60.-a Material behavior
  • 83.60.Bc Linear viscoelasticity
  • 83.60.Df Nonlinear viscoelasticity
  • 83.60.Fg Shear rate dependent viscosity
  • 83.60.Hc Normal stress differences and their effects (e.g. rod climbing)
  • 83.60.Jk Extrudate swell
  • 83.60.La Viscoplasticity; yield stress
  • 83.60.Np Effects of electric and magnetic fields
  • 83.60.Pq Time-dependent structure (thixotropy, rheopexy)
  • 83.60.Rs Shear rate-dependent structure (shear thinning and shear thickening)
  • 83.60.St Non-isothermal rheology
  • 83.60.Uv Wave propagation, fracture, and crack healing
  • 83.60.Wc Flow instabilities
  • 83.60.Yz Drag reduction
  • 83.80.-k Material type
  • 83.80.Ab Solids: e.g., composites, glasses, semicrystalline polymers
  • 83.80.Fg Granular solids
  • 83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
  • 83.80.Hj Suspensions, dispersions, pastes, slurries, colloids
  • 83.80.Iz Emulsions and foams
  • 83.80.Jx Reacting systems: thermosetting polymers, chemorheology, rheokinetics
  • 83.80.Kn Physical gels and microgels
  • 83.80.Lz Physiological materials (e.g. blood, collagen, etc.)
  • 83.80.Mc Other natural materials (e.g. wood and other vegetable materials)
  • 83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
  • 83.80.Qr Surfactant and micellar systems, associated polymers
  • 83.80.Rs Polymer solutions
  • 83.80.Sg Polymer melts
  • 83.80.Tc Polymer blends
  • 83.80.Uv Block copolymers
  • 83.80.Va Elastomeric polymers
  • 83.80.Wx Filled elastomers
  • 83.80.Xz Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
  • 83.80.Ya Processed food
  • 83.85.-c Techniques and apparatus
  • 83.85.Cg Rheological measurements-rheometry
  • 83.85.Ei Optical methods; rheo-optics
  • 83.85.Fg NMR/magnetic resonance imaging
  • 83.85.Hf X-ray and neutron scattering
  • 83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
  • 83.85.Lq Normal stress difference measurements
  • 83.85.Ns Data analysis (interconversion of data computation of relaxation and retardation spectra; time-temperature superposition, etc.)
  • 83.85.Pt Computational fluid dynamics
  • 83.85.Rx Extensional flow measurement
  • 83.85.St Stress relaxation
  • 83.85.Tz Creep and/or creep recoil
  • 83.85.Vb Small amplitude oscillatory shear (dynamic mechanical analysis)
  • 83.90.+s Other topics in rheology (restricted to new topics in section 83)
  • 84. Electronics; radiowave and microwave technology; direct energy conversion and storage
  • 84.30.-r Electronic circuits
  • 84.30.Bv Circuit theory (including computer-aided circuit design and analysis)
  • 84.30.Jc Power electronics; power supply circuits
  • 84.30.Le Amplifiers
  • 84.30.Ng Oscillators, pulse generators, and function generators
  • 84.30.Qi Modulators and demodulators; discriminators, comparators, mixers, limiters, and compressors
  • 84.30.Sk Pulse and digital circuits
  • 84.30.Vn Filters
  • 84.32.-y Passive circuit components
  • 84.32.Dd Connectors, relays, and switches
  • 84.32.Ff Conductors, resistors (including thermistors, varistors, and photoresistors)
  • 84.32.Hh Inductors and coils; wiring
  • 84.32.Tt Capacitors
  • 84.32.Vv Fuses
  • 84.35.+i Neural networks
  • 84.37.+q Electric variable measurements (including voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, impedance, and admittance, etc.)
  • 84.40.-x Radiowave and microwave (including millimeter wave) technology
  • 84.40.Az Waveguides, transmission lines, striplines
  • 84.40.Ba Antennas: theory, components and accessories
  • 84.40.Dc Microwave circuits
  • 84.40.Fe Microwave tubes (e.g., klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.)
  • 84.40.Ik Masers; gyrotrons (cyclotron-resonance masers)
  • 84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics
  • 84.40.Ua Telecommunications: signal transmission and processing; communication satellites
  • 84.40.Xb Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar
  • 84.47.+w Vacuum tubes
  • 84.50.+d Electric motors
  • 84.60.-h Direct energy conversion and storage
  • 84.60.Bk Performance characteristics of energy conversion systems; figure of merit
  • 84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion: solar cells and arrays
  • 84.60.Lw Magnetohydrodynamic conversion
  • 84.60.Ny Thermionic conversion
  • 84.60.Rb Thermoelectric, electrogasdynamic and other direct energy conversion
  • 84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks
  • 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables
  • 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology
  • 84.71.Ba Superconducting magnets; magnetic levitation devices
  • 84.71.Fk Superconducting cables
  • 84.71.Mn Superconducting wires, fibers, and tapes
  • 84.90.+a Other topics in electronics, radiowave and microwave technology, and direct energy conversion and storage (restricted to new topics in section 84)
  • 85. Electronic and magnetic devices; microelectronics
  • 85.25.-j Superconducting devices
  • 85.25.Am Superconducting device characterization, design, and modeling
  • 85.25.Cp Josephson devices
  • 85.25.Dq Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
  • 85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits
  • 85.25.Oj Superconducting optical, x-ray, and gamma-ray detectors (SIS, NIS, transition edge)
  • 85.25.Pb Superconducting infrared, submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors
  • 85.25.Qc Superconducting surface acoustic wave devices and other superconducting devices
  • 85.30.-z Semiconductor devices
  • 85.30.De Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling
  • 85.30.Fg Bulk semiconductor and conductivity oscillation devices (including Hall effect devices, space-charge-limited devices, and Gunn effect devices)
  • 85.30.Hi Surface barrier, boundary, and point contact devices
  • 85.30.Kk Junction diodes
  • 85.30.Mn Junction breakdown and tunneling devices (including resonance tunneling devices)
  • 85.30.Pq Bipolar transistors
  • 85.30.Rs Thyristors
  • 85.30.Tv Field effect devices
  • 85.35.-p Nanoelectronic devices
  • 85.35.Be Quantum well devices (quantum dots, quantum wires, etc.)
  • 85.35.Ds Quantum interference devices
  • 85.35.Gv Single electron devices
  • 85.35.Kt Nanotube devices
  • 85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology
  • 85.40.Bh Computer-aided design of microcircuits; layout and modeling
  • 85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
  • 85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
  • 85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
  • 85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
  • 85.40.Sz Deposition technology
  • 85.40.Xx Hybrid microelectronics; thick films
  • 85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics
  • 85.45.Bz Vacuum microelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
  • 85.45.Db Field emitters and arrays, cold electron emitters
  • 85.45.Fd Field emission displays (FEDs)
  • 85.50.-n Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices
  • 85.50.Gk Non-volatile ferroelectric memories
  • 85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices
  • 85.60.Bt Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
  • 85.60.Dw Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors
  • 85.60.Gz Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors)
  • 85.60.Ha Photomultipliers; phototubes and photocathodes
  • 85.60.Jb Light-emitting devices
  • 85.60.Pg Display systems
  • 85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices
  • 85.70.-w Magnetic devices
  • 85.70.Ay Magnetic device characterization, design, and modeling
  • 85.70.Ec Magnetostrictive, magnetoacoustic, and magnetostatic devices
  • 85.70.Ge Ferrite and garnet devices
  • 85.70.Kh Magnetic thin film devices: magnetic heads (magnetoresistive, inductive, etc.); domain-motion devices, etc.
  • 85.70.Li Other magnetic recording and storage devices (including tapes, disks, and drums)
  • 85.70.Rp Magnetic levitation, propulsion and control devices
  • 85.70.Sq Magnetooptical devices
  • 85.75.-d Magnetoelectronics; spintronics: devices exploiting spin polarized transport or integrated magnetic fields
  • 85.75.Bb Magnetic memory using giant magnetoresistance
  • 85.75.Dd Magnetic memory using magnetic tunnel junctions
  • 85.75.Ff Reprogrammable magnetic logic
  • 85.75.Hh Spin polarized field effect transistors
  • 85.75.Mm Spin polarized resonant tunnel junctions
  • 85.75.Nn Hybrid Hall devices
  • 85.75.Ss Magnetic field sensors using spin polarized transport
  • 85.80.-b Thermoelectromagnetic and other devices
  • 85.80.Fi Thermoelectric devices
  • 85.80.Jm Magnetoelectric devices
  • 85.80.Lp Magnetothermal devices
  • 85.85.+j Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices
  • 85.90.+h Other topics in electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics (restricted to new topics in section 85)
  • 87. Biological and medical physics
  • 87.10.+e General theory and mathematical aspects
  • 87.14.-g Biomolecules: types
  • 87.14.Cc Lipids
  • 87.14.Ee Proteins
  • 87.14.Gg DNA, RNA
  • 87.15.-v Biomolecules: structure and physical properties
  • 87.15.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
  • 87.15.By Structure and bonding
  • 87.15.Cc Folding and sequence analysis
  • 87.15.He Dynamics and conformational changes
  • 87.15.Kg Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
  • 87.15.La Mechanical properties
  • 87.15.Mi Spectra, photodissociation, and photoionization; luminescence
  • 87.15.Nn Properties of solutions; aggregation and crystallization of macromolecules
  • 87.15.Rn Reactions and kinetics; polymerization
  • 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis
  • 87.15.Vv Diffusion
  • 87.15.Ya Fluctuations
  • 87.16.-b Subcellular structure and processes
  • 87.16.Ac Theory and modeling; computer simulation
  • 87.16.Dg Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles
  • 87.16.Gj Cell walls
  • 87.16.Ka Filaments, microtubules, their networks, and supramolecular assemblies
  • 87.16.Nn Motor proteins (myosin, kinesin dynein)
  • 87.16.Qp Pseudopods, lamellipods, cilia, and flagella
  • 87.16.Sr Chromosomes, histones
  • 87.16.Tb Organelles
  • 87.16.Uv Active transport processes; ion channels
  • 87.16.Xa Signal transduction
  • 87.16.Yc Regulatory chemical networks
  • 87.17.-d Cellular structure and processes
  • 87.17.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
  • 87.17.Ee Growth and division
  • 87.17.Jj Cell locomotion; chemotaxis and related directed motion
  • 87.17.Nn Electrophysiology of nerve cells
  • 87.18.-h Multicellular phenomena
  • 87.18.Bb Computer simulation
  • 87.18.Ed Aggregation and other collective behavior of motile cells
  • 87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations
  • 87.18.La Morphogenesis
  • 87.18.Pj Chemical waves
  • 87.18.Sn Neural networks
  • 87.19.-j Properties of higher organisms
  • 87.19.Bb Sensory perceptions
  • 87.19.Dd Information processing in vision and hearing
  • 87.19.Ff Muscles
  • 87.19.Hh Cardiac dynamics
  • 87.19.Jj Circadian rhythms
  • 87.19.La Neuroscience
  • 87.19.Nn Electrophysiology
  • 87.19.Pp Biothermics
  • 87.19.Rr Mechanical properties of tissues and organs
  • 87.19.St Movement and locomotion
  • 87.19.Tt Rheology of body fluids
  • 87.19.Uv Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics
  • 87.19.Xx Diseases
  • 87.23.-n Ecology and evolution
  • 87.23.Cc Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
  • 87.23.Ge Dynamics of social systems
  • 87.23.Kg Dynamics of evolution
  • 87.50.-a Effects of radiation and external fields on biomolecules, cells and higher organisms
  • 87.50.Gi Ionizing radiations (ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)
  • 87.50.Hj Optical radiation (near ultraviolet, visible, and infrared)
  • 87.50.Jk Radio frequency and microwave radiation (power lines)
  • 87.50.Kk Sound and ultrasound
  • 87.50.Mn Magnetic fields
  • 87.50.Rr Electric fields
  • 87.52.-g Radiation monitoring, control, and safety
  • 87.52.Df Low LET: therapeutic and diagnostic x-rays and electrons
  • 87.52.Ga Low LET: associated neutron shielding and measurement
  • 87.52.Ln High LET
  • 87.52.Px Risk/benefit analysis
  • 87.52.Tr Regulatory issues
  • 87.53.-j Ionizing-radiation therapy physics
  • 87.53.Bn Photon dosimetry: theory and algorithms
  • 87.53.Dq Photon dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Fs Electron and positron dosimetry: theory and algorithms
  • 87.53.Hv Electron and positron dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Jw Brachytherapy
  • 87.53.Kn Conformal radiation treatment
  • 87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery
  • 87.53.Mr Beam intensity modification: wedges, compensators
  • 87.53.Na Radioimmunotherapy
  • 87.53.Oq Portal imaging in therapy
  • 87.53.Pb Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: theory and algorithms
  • 87.53.Qc Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Rd Microdosimetry
  • 87.53.St Record and verify systems and applications
  • 87.53.Tf Treatment planning, optimization, tissue response factors, and dose-volume analysis
  • 87.53.Uv Collimation
  • 87.53.Vb Simulation
  • 87.53.Wz Monte Carlo applications
  • 87.53.Xd Quality assurance in radiotherapy
  • 87.54.-n Non-ionizing radiation therapy physics
  • 87.54.Br Thermotherapy (hyperthermia and cryogenic therapy)
  • 87.54.Dt Electrotherapy
  • 87.54.Fj Photodynamic therapy
  • 87.54.Hk Sound and ultrasound therapy/lithotripsy
  • 87.56.-v Radiation therapy equipment
  • 87.56.By Radiation generators
  • 87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
  • 87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
  • 87.57.-s Medical imaging: general
  • 87.57.Ce Image quality: contrast, resolution, noise, etc.
  • 87.57.Gg Image reconstruction and registration
  • 87.57.Nk Image analysis
  • 87.57.Ra Computer-aided diagnosis
  • 87.58.-b Nuclear medicine imaging, dosimetry, labeling, metabolic studies
  • 87.58.Ce Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • 87.58.Fg Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • 87.58.Ji Radiopharmaceuticals
  • 87.58.Mj Digital imaging
  • 87.58.Pm Scintillation cameras
  • 87.58.Sp Dosimetry
  • 87.58.Vr Quantitative measurements and scanning
  • 87.58.Xs Bone densitometry
  • 87.59.-e X-ray imaging
  • 87.59.Bh X-ray radiography
  • 87.59.Ci Fluoroscopy
  • 87.59.Dj Angiography
  • 87.59.Ek Mammography
  • 87.59.Fm Computed tomography (CT)
  • 87.59.Hp Digital radiography
  • 87.59.Jq Transmission imaging
  • 87.59.Ls Bone densitometry
  • 87.61.-c Magnetic resonance imaging
  • 87.61.Cd Pulse sequences for imaging
  • 87.61.Ff Instrumentation
  • 87.61.Lh Angiography and macroscopic flow estimation
  • 87.61.Pk Clinical imaging studies
  • 87.62.+n Medical imaging equipment
  • 87.63.-d Non-ionizing radiation equipment and techniques
  • 87.63.Df Ultrasonography
  • 87.63.Hg Thermography
  • 87.63.Lk Visible radiation: diaphanography, transillumination, laser imaging
  • 87.63.Pn Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
  • 87.64.-t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics
  • 87.64.Aa Computer simulation
  • 87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
  • 87.64.Cc Scattering of visible, uv, and infrared radiation
  • 87.64.Dz Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
  • 87.64.Ee Electron microscopy
  • 87.64.Fb EXAFS spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Gb X-ray spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Hd EPR and NMR spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Je Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Lg Electron and photoelectron spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Ni Optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Pj Mцssbauer spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Rr Light microscopy: bright-field, dark-field, phase contrast, DIC
  • 87.64.Tt Confocal microscopy
  • 87.64.Vv Multiphoton microscopy
  • 87.64.Xx Near-field scanning optical microscopy
  • 87.65.+y Aerospace bio- and medical physics (effects of accelerations, weightlessness, and space environment)
  • 87.66.-a Radiation measurement
  • 87.66.Cd Films: silver bromide based, radiochromic, etc.
  • 87.66.Ff Chemical dosimetry
  • 87.66.Jj Ionization dosimetry
  • 87.66.Na Calorimetric dosimetry
  • 87.66.Pm Solid state detectors
  • 87.66.Sq Thermoluminescence, bioluminescence, etc.
  • 87.66.Uv Magnetic resonance
  • 87.66.Xa Phantoms
  • 87.68.+z Biomaterials and biological interfaces
  • 87.80.-y Biological techniques and instrumentation; biomedical engineering
  • 87.80.Cc Optical trapping
  • 87.80.Fe Micromanipulators
  • 87.80.Jg Patch clamping
  • 87.80.Mj Micromachining
  • 87.80.Pa Morphometry and stereology
  • 87.80.Rb Tissue and cellular engineering and biotechnology
  • 87.80.Tq Biological signal processing and instrumentation
  • 87.80.Vt Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
  • 87.80.Xa Neural engineering
  • 87.83.+a Biomedical applications of nanotechnology
  • 87.90.+y Other topics in biological and medical physics (restricted to new topics in section 87)
  • 89. Other areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics
  • 89.20.-a Interdisciplinary applications of physics
  • 89.20.Bb Industrial and technological research and development
  • 89.20.Dd Military technology and weapons systems; arms control
  • 89.20.Ff Computer science and technology
  • 89.20.Hh World Wide Web, Internet
  • 89.20.Kk Engineering
  • 89.30.-g Energy resources
  • 89.30.Aa Fossil fuels
  • 89.30.Cc Solar power
  • 89.30.Ee Hydroelectric, hydrothermal, geothermal and wind power
  • 89.30.Gg Nuclear fission power
  • 89.30.Jj Nuclear fusion power
  • 89.40.-a Transportation
  • 89.40.Bb Land transportation
  • 89.40.Cc Water transportation
  • 89.40.Dd Air transporation
  • 89.60.-k Environmental studies
  • 89.60.Ec Environmental safety
  • 89.60.Fe Environmental regulations
  • 89.60.Gg Impact of natural and man-made disasters
  • 89.65.-s Social and economic systems
  • 89.65.Cd Demographic studies
  • 89.65.Ef Social organizations; anthropology
  • 89.65.Gh Economics; econophysics, financial markets, business and management
  • 89.65.Lm Urban planning and construction
  • 89.70.+c Information theory and communication theory
  • 89.75.-k Complex systems
  • 89.75.Da Systems obeying scaling laws
  • 89.75.Fb Structures and organization in complex systems
  • 89.75.Hc Networks and genealogical trees
  • 89.75.Kd Patterns
  • 89.90.+n Other topics in areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics (restricted to new topics in section 89)
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