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Глобальное потепление - это...

результат неконтролируемого загрязнения атмосферы
результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
средство наживы для экологических организаций



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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


70. Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties
  • 71. Electronic structure of bulk materials
  • 71.10.-w Theories and models of many-electron systems
  • 71.10.Ay Fermi-liquid theory and other phenomenological models
  • 71.10.Ca Electron gas, Fermi gas
  • 71.10.Fd Lattice fermion models (Hubbard model, etc.)
  • 71.10.Hf Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems
  • 71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems
  • 71.10.Pm Fermions in reduced dimensions (anyons, composite fermions, Luttinger liquid, etc.)
  • 71.15.-m Methods of electronic structure calculations
  • 71.15.Ap Basis sets (LCAO, plane-wave, APW, etc.) and related methodology (scattering methods, ASA, linearized methods, etc.)
  • 71.15.Dx Computational methodology (Brillouin zone sampling, iterative diagonalization, pseudopotential construction)
  • 71.15.Mb Density functional theory, local density approximation, gradient and other corrections
  • 71.15.Nc Total energy and cohesive energy calculations
  • 71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Car-Parrinello) and other numerical simulations
  • 71.15.Qe Excited states: methodology
  • 71.15.Rf Relativistic effects
  • 71.18.+y Fermi surface: calculations and measurements; effective mass, g factor
  • 71.20.-b Electron density of states and band structure of crystalline solids
  • 71.20.Be Transition metals and alloys
  • 71.20.Dg Alkali and alkaline earth metals
  • 71.20.Eh Rare earth metals and alloys
  • 71.20.Gj Other metals and alloys
  • 71.20.Lp Intermetallic compounds
  • 71.20.Mq Elemental semiconductors
  • 71.20.Nr Semiconductor compounds
  • 71.20.Ps Other inorganic compounds
  • 71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds
  • 71.20.Tx Fullerenes and related materials; intercalation compounds
  • 71.22.+i Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys
  • 71.23.-k Electronic structure of disordered solids
  • 71.23.An Theories and models; localized states
  • 71.23.Cq Amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses
  • 71.23.Ft Quasicrystals
  • 71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems; heavy fermions
  • 71.28.+d Narrow-band systems; intermediate-valence solids
  • 71.30.+h Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
  • 71.35.-y Excitons and related phenomena
  • 71.35.Aa Frenkel excitons and self-trapped excitons
  • 71.35.Cc Intrinsic properties of excitons; optical absorption spectra
  • 71.35.Ee Electron-hole drops and electron-hole plasma
  • 71.35.Gg Exciton-mediated interactions
  • 71.35.Ji Excitons in magnetic fields; magnetoexcitons
  • 71.35.Lk Collective effects (Bose effects, phase space filling, and excitonic phase transitions)
  • 71.35.Pq Charged excitons (trions)
  • 71.36.+c Polaritons (including photon-phonon and photon-magnon interactions)
  • 71.38.-k Polarons and electron-phonon interactions
  • 71.38.Cn Mass renormalization in metals
  • 71.38.Fp Large or Frцhlich polarons
  • 71.38.Ht Self-trapped or small polarons
  • 71.38.Mx Bipolarons
  • 71.45.-d Collective effects
  • 71.45.Gm Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic response functions, plasmons
  • 71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems
  • 71.55.-i Impurity and defect levels
  • 71.55.Ak Metals, semimetals, and alloys
  • 71.55.Cn Elemental semiconductors
  • 71.55.Eq III-V semiconductors
  • 71.55.Gs II-VI semiconductors
  • 71.55.Ht Other nonmetals
  • 71.55.Jv Disordered structures; amorphous and glassy solids
  • 71.60.+z Positron states
  • 71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions
  • 71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields
  • 71.70.Di Landau levels
  • 71.70.Ej Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting, Jahn-Teller effect
  • 71.70.Fk Strain-induced splitting
  • 71.70.Gm Exchange interactions
  • 71.70.Jp Nuclear states and interactions
  • 71.90.+q Other topics in electronic structure (restricted to new topics in section 71)
  • 72. Electronic transport in condensed matter
  • 72.10.-d Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
  • 72.10.Bg General formulation of transport theory
  • 72.10.Di Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations
  • 72.10.Fk Scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections (including Kondo effect)
  • 72.15.-v Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
  • 72.15.Cz Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys
  • 72.15.Eb Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys
  • 72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
  • 72.15.Jf Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
  • 72.15.Lh Relaxation times and mean free paths
  • 72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors)
  • 72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect
  • 72.15.Rn Localization effects (Anderson or weak localization)
  • 72.20.-i Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators
  • 72.20.Dp General theory, scattering mechanisms
  • 72.20.Ee Mobility edges; hopping transport
  • 72.20.Fr Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
  • 72.20.Ht High-field and nonlinear effects
  • 72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping
  • 72.20.My Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
  • 72.20.Pa Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
  • 72.25.-b Spin polarized transport
  • 72.25.Ba Spin polarized transport in metals
  • 72.25.Dc Spin polarized transport in semiconductors
  • 72.25.Fe Optical creation of spin polarized carriers
  • 72.25.Hg Electrical injection of spin polarized carriers
  • 72.25.Mk Spin transport through interfaces
  • 72.25.Pn Current-driven spin pumping
  • 72.25.Rb Spin relaxation and scattering
  • 72.30.+q High-frequency effects; plasma effects
  • 72.40.+w Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
  • 72.50.+b Acoustoelectric effects
  • 72.55.+s Magnetoacoustic effects
  • 72.60.+g Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
  • 72.70.+m Noise processes and phenomena
  • 72.80.-r Conductivity of specific materials
  • 72.80.Cw Elemental semiconductors
  • 72.80.Ey III-V and II-VI semiconductors
  • 72.80.Ga Transition-metal compounds
  • 72.80.Jc Other crystalline inorganic semiconductors
  • 72.80.Le Polymers; organic compounds (including organic semiconductors)
  • 72.80.Ng Disordered solids
  • 72.80.Ph Liquid semiconductors
  • 72.80.Rj Fullerenes and related materials
  • 72.80.Sk Insulators
  • 72.80.Tm Composite materials
  • 72.90.+y Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 72)
  • 73. Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures
  • 73.20.-r Electron states at surfaces and interfaces
  • 73.20.At Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
  • 73.20.Fz Weak or Anderson localization
  • 73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species
  • 73.20.Jc Delocalization processes
  • 73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including excitons, polarons, plasmons and other charge-density excitations)
  • 73.20.Qt Electron solids
  • 73.21.-b Electron states and collective excitations in multilayers, quantum wells, mesoscopic, and nanoscale systems
  • 73.21.Ac Multilayers
  • 73.21.Cd Superlattices
  • 73.21.Fg Quantum wells
  • 73.21.Hb Quantum wires
  • 73.21.La Quantum dots
  • 73.22.-f Electronic structure of nanoscale materials: clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals
  • 73.22.Dj Single particle states
  • 73.22.Gk Broken symmetry phases
  • 73.22.Lp Collective excitations
  • 73.23.-b Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems
  • 73.23.Ad Ballistic transport
  • 73.23.Hk Coulomb blockade; single-electron tunneling
  • 73.23.Ra Persistent currents
  • 73.25.+i Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
  • 73.30.+y Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions
  • 73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures
  • 73.40.Cg Contact resistance, contact potential
  • 73.40.Ei Rectification
  • 73.40.Gk Tunneling
  • 73.40.Jn Metal-to-metal contacts
  • 73.40.Kp III-V semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
  • 73.40.Lq Other semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
  • 73.40.Mr Semiconductor-electrolyte contacts
  • 73.40.Ns Metal-nonmetal contacts
  • 73.40.Qv Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures (including semiconductor-to-insulator)
  • 73.40.Rw Metal-insulator-metal structures
  • 73.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures
  • 73.40.Ty Semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
  • 73.40.Vz Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures
  • 73.43.-f Quantum Hall effects
  • 73.43.Cd Theory and modeling
  • 73.43.Fj Novel experimental methods; measurements
  • 73.43.Jn Tunneling
  • 73.43.Lp Collective excitations
  • 73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions
  • 73.43.Qt Magnetoresistance
  • 73.50.-h Electronic transport phenomena in thin films
  • 73.50.Bk General theory, scattering mechanisms
  • 73.50.Dn Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
  • 73.50.Fq High-field and nonlinear effects
  • 73.50.Gr Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths
  • 73.50.Jt Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (including thermomagnetic effects)
  • 73.50.Lw Thermoelectric effects
  • 73.50.Mx High-frequency effects; plasma effects
  • 73.50.Pz Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
  • 73.50.Rb Acoustoelectric and magnetoacoustic effects
  • 73.50.Td Noise processes and phenomena
  • 73.61.-r Electrical properties of specific thin films
  • 73.61.At Metal and metallic alloys
  • 73.61.Cw Elemental semiconductors
  • 73.61.Ey III-V semiconductors
  • 73.61.Ga II-VI semiconductors
  • 73.61.Jc Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
  • 73.61.Le Other inorganic semiconductors
  • 73.61.Ng Insulators
  • 73.61.Ph Polymers; organic compounds
  • 73.61.Wp Fullerenes and related materials
  • 73.63.-b Electronic transport in nanoscale materials and structures
  • 73.63.Bd Nanocrystalline materials
  • 73.63.Fg Nanotubes
  • 73.63.Hs Quantum wells
  • 73.63.Kv Quantum dots
  • 73.63.Nm Quantum wires
  • 73.63.Rt Nanoscale contacts
  • 73.90.+f Other topics in electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (Restricted to new topics in section 73)
  • 74. Superconductivity
  • 74.10.+v Occurrence, potential candidates
  • 74.20.-z Theories and models of superconducting state
  • 74.20.De Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, Ginzburg-Landau, etc.)
  • 74.20.Fg BCS theory and its development
  • 74.20.Mn Nonconventional mechanisms (spin fluctuations, polarons and bipolarons, resonating valence bond model, anyon mechanism, marginal Fermi liquid, Luttinger liquid, etc.)
  • 74.20.Rp Pairing symmetries (other than s-wave)
  • 74.25.-q Properties of type I and type II superconductors
  • 74.25.Bt Thermodynamic properties
  • 74.25.Dw Superconductivity phase diagrams
  • 74.25.Fy Transport properties (electric and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric effects, etc.)
  • 74.25.Gz Optical properties
  • 74.25.Ha Magnetic properties
  • 74.25.Jb Electronic structure
  • 74.25.Kc Phonons
  • 74.25.Ld Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, and ultrasonic attenuation
  • 74.25.Nf Response to electromagnetic fields (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface impedance, etc.)
  • 74.25.Op Mixed states, critical fields, and surface sheaths
  • 74.25.Qt Vortex lattices, flux pinning, flux creep
  • 74.25.Sv Critical currents
  • 74.40.+k Fluctuations (noise, chaos, nonequilibrium superconductivity, localization, etc.)
  • 74.45.+c Proximity effects; Andreev effect; SN and SNS junctions
  • 74.50.+r Tunneling phenomena; point contacts, weak links, Josephson effects
  • 74.62.-c Transition temperature variations
  • 74.62.Bf Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition
  • 74.62.Dh Effects of crystal defects, doping and substitution
  • 74.62.Fj Pressure effects
  • 74.62.Yb Other effects
  • 74.70.-b Superconducting materials
  • 74.70.Ad Metals; alloys and binary compounds (including A15, MgB2, etc.)
  • 74.70.Dd Ternary, quaternary and multinary compounds (including Chevrel phases, borocarbides, etc.)
  • 74.70.Kn Organic superconductors
  • 74.70.Pq Ruthenates
  • 74.70.Tx Heavy-fermion superconductors
  • 74.70.Wz Fullerenes and related materials
  • 74.72.-h Cuprate superconductors (high-Tc and insulating parent compounds)
  • 74.72.Bk Y-based cuprates
  • 74.72.Dn La-based cuprates
  • 74.72.Hs Bi-based cuprates
  • 74.72.Jt Other cuprates, including Tl and Hg-based cuprates
  • 74.78.-w Superconducting films and low-dimensional structures
  • 74.78.Bz High-Tc films
  • 74.78.Db Low-Tc films
  • 74.78.Fk Multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures
  • 74.78.Na Mesoscopic and nanoscale systems
  • 74.81.-g Inhomogeneous superconductors and superconducting systems
  • 74.81.Bd Granular, melt-textured, amorphous and composite superconductors
  • 74.81.Fa Josephson junction arrays and wire networks
  • 74.90.+n Other topics in superconductivity (restricted to new topics in section 74)
  • 75. Magnetic properties and materials
  • 75.10.-b General theory and models of magnetic ordering
  • 75.10.Dg Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians
  • 75.10.Hk Classical spin models
  • 75.10.Jm Quantized spin models
  • 75.10.Lp Band and itinerant models
  • 75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models
  • 75.10.Pq Spin chain models
  • 75.20.-g Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and superparamagnetism
  • 75.20.Ck Nonmetals
  • 75.20.En Metals and alloys
  • 75.20.Hr Local moment in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions
  • 75.25.+z Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials (including neutron and spin-polarized electron studies, synchrotron-source x-ray scattering, etc.)
  • 75.30.-m Intrinsic properties of magnetically ordered materials
  • 75.30.Cr Saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities
  • 75.30.Ds Spin waves
  • 75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions
  • 75.30.Fv Spin-density waves
  • 75.30.Gw Magnetic anisotropy
  • 75.30.Hx Magnetic impurity interactions
  • 75.30.Kz Magnetic phase boundaries (including magnetic transitions, metamagnetism, etc.)
  • 75.30.Mb Valence fluctuation, Kondo lattice, and heavy-fermion phenomena
  • 75.30.Sg Magnetocaloric effect, magnetic cooling
  • 75.30.Wx Spin crossover
  • 75.40.-s Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order
  • 75.40.Cx Static properties (order parameter, static susceptibility, heat capacities, critical exponents, etc.)
  • 75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.)
  • 75.40.Mg Numerical simulation studies
  • 75.45.+j Macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems
  • 75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport
  • 75.47.De Giant magnetoresistance
  • 75.47.Gk Colossal magnetoresistance
  • 75.47.Jn Ballistic magnetoresistance
  • 75.47.Lx Manganites
  • 75.47.Np Metals and alloys
  • 75.47.Pq Other materials
  • 75.50.-y Studies of specific magnetic materials
  • 75.50.Bb Fe and its alloys
  • 75.50.Cc Other ferromagnetic metals and alloys
  • 75.50.Dd Nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials
  • 75.50.Ee Antiferromagnetics
  • 75.50.Gg Ferrimagnetics
  • 75.50.Kj Amorphous and quasicrystalline magnetic materials
  • 75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets
  • 75.50.Mm Magnetic liquids
  • 75.50.Pp Magnetic semiconductors
  • 75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials
  • 75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems; nanocrystalline materials
  • 75.50.Vv High coercivity materials
  • 75.50.Ww Permanent magnets
  • 75.50.Xx Molecular magnets
  • 75.60.-d Domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis
  • 75.60.Ch Domain walls and domain structure
  • 75.60.Ej Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects
  • 75.60.Jk Magnetization reversal mechanisms
  • 75.60.Lr Magnetic aftereffects
  • 75.60.Nt Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects
  • 75.70.-i Magnetic properties of thin films, surfaces, and interfaces
  • 75.70.Ak Magnetic properties of monolayers and thin films
  • 75.70.Cn Magnetic properties of interfaces (multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures)
  • 75.70.Kw Domain structure (including magnetic bubbles)
  • 75.70.Rf Surface magnetism
  • 75.75.+a Magnetic properties of nanostructures
  • 75.80.+q Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction
  • 75.90.+w Other topics in magnetic properties and materials (restricted to new topics in section 75)
  • 76. Magnetic resonances and relaxations in condensed matter, Mцssbauer effect
  • 76.20.+q General theory of resonances and relaxations
  • 76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation
  • 76.30.Da Ions and impurities: general
  • 76.30.Fc Iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
  • 76.30.He Platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
  • 76.30.Kg Rare-earth ions and impurities
  • 76.30.Lh Other ions and impurities
  • 76.30.Mi Color centers and other defects
  • 76.30.Pk Conduction electrons
  • 76.30.Rn Free radicals
  • 76.40.+b Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances
  • 76.50.+g Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin-wave resonance
  • 76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation
  • 76.60.Cq Chemical and Knight shifts
  • 76.60.Es Relaxation effects
  • 76.60.Gv Quadrupole resonance
  • 76.60.Jx Effects of internal magnetic fields
  • 76.60.Lz Spin echoes
  • 76.60.Pc NMR imaging
  • 76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects
  • 76.70.Dx Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron double resonance (ELDOR)
  • 76.70.Fz Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR), dynamical nuclear polarization
  • 76.70.Hb Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
  • 76.75.+i Muon spin rotation and relaxation
  • 76.80.+y Mцssbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy
  • 76.90.+d Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxations (restricted to new topics in section 76)
  • 77. Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties
  • 77.22.-d Dielectric properties of solids and liquids
  • 77.22.Ch Permittivity (dielectric function)
  • 77.22.Ej Polarization and depolarization
  • 77.22.Gm Dielectric loss and relaxation
  • 77.22.Jp Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects
  • 77.55.+f Dielectric thin films
  • 77.65.-j Piezoelectricity and electromechanical effects
  • 77.65.Bn Piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants
  • 77.65.Dq Acoustoelectric effects and surface acoustic waves (SAW) in piezoelectrics
  • 77.65.Fs Electromechanical resonance; quartz resonators
  • 77.65.Ly Strain-induced piezoelectric fields
  • 77.70.+a Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
  • 77.80.-e Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
  • 77.80.Bh Phase transitions and Curie point
  • 77.80.Dj Domain structure; hysteresis
  • 77.80.Fm Switching phenomena
  • 77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials
  • 77.84.Bw Elements, oxides, nitrides, borides, carbides, chalcogenides, etc.
  • 77.84.Dy Niobates, titanates, tantalates, PZT ceramics, etc.
  • 77.84.Fa KDP- and TGS-type crystals
  • 77.84.Jd Polymers; organic compounds
  • 77.84.Lf Composite materials
  • 77.84.Nh Liquids, emulsions, and suspensions; liquid crystals
  • 77.90.+k Other topics in dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (restricted to new topics in section 77)
  • 78. Optical properties, condensed-matter spectroscopy and other interactions of radiation and particles with condensed matter
  • 78.20.-e Optical properties of bulk materials and thin films
  • 78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation
  • 78.20.Ci Optical constants (including refractive index, complex dielectric constant, absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients, emissivity)
  • 78.20.Ek Optical activity
  • 78.20.Fm Birefringence
  • 78.20.Hp Piezo-, elasto-, and acoustooptical effects; photoacoustic effects
  • 78.20.Jq Electrooptical effects
  • 78.20.Ls Magnetooptical effects
  • 78.20.Nv Thermooptical and photothermal effects
  • 78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra
  • 78.30.Am Elemental semiconductors and insulators
  • 78.30.Cp Liquids
  • 78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
  • 78.30.Fs III-V and II-VI semiconductors
  • 78.30.Hv Other nonmetallic inorganics
  • 78.30.Jw Organic compounds, polymers
  • 78.30.Ly Disordered solids
  • 78.30.Na Fullerenes and related materials
  • 78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering
  • 78.40.-q Absorption and reflection spectra: visible and ultraviolet
  • 78.40.Dw Liquids
  • 78.40.Fy Semiconductors
  • 78.40.Ha Other nonmetallic inorganics
  • 78.40.Kc Metals, semimetals, and alloys
  • 78.40.Me Organic compounds and polymers
  • 78.40.Pg Disordered solids
  • 78.40.Ri Fullerenes and related materials
  • 78.45.+h Stimulated emission
  • 78.47.+p Time-resolved optical spectroscopies and other ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter
  • 78.55.-m Photoluminescence, properties and materials
  • 78.55.Ap Elemental semiconductors
  • 78.55.Bq Liquids
  • 78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors
  • 78.55.Et II-VI semiconductors
  • 78.55.Fv Solid alkali halides
  • 78.55.Hx Other solid inorganic materials
  • 78.55.Kz Solid organic materials
  • 78.55.Mb Porous materials
  • 78.55.Qr Amorphous materials; glasses and other disordered solids
  • 78.60.-b Other luminescence and radiative recombination
  • 78.60.Fi Electroluminescence
  • 78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
  • 78.60.Kn Thermoluminescence
  • 78.60.Mq Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence
  • 78.60.Ps Chemiluminescence
  • 78.66.-w Optical properties of specific thin films
  • 78.66.Bz Metals and metallic alloys
  • 78.66.Db Elemental semiconductors and insulators
  • 78.66.Fd III-V semiconductors
  • 78.66.Hf II-VI semiconductors
  • 78.66.Jg Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
  • 78.66.Li Other semiconductors
  • 78.66.Nk Insulators
  • 78.66.Qn Polymers; organic compounds
  • 78.66.Sq Composite materials
  • 78.66.Tr Fullerenes and related materials
  • 78.66.Vs Fine-particle systems
  • 78.67.-n Optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials and structures
  • 78.67.Bf Nanocrystals and nanoparticles
  • 78.67.Ch Nanotubes
  • 78.67.De Quantum wells
  • 78.67.Hc Quantum dots
  • 78.67.Lt Quantum wires
  • 78.67.Pt Multilayers; superlattices
  • 78.68.+m Optical properties of surfaces
  • 78.70.-g Interactions of particles and radiation with matter
  • 78.70.Bj Positron annihilation
  • 78.70.Ck X-ray scattering
  • 78.70.Dm X-ray absorption spectra
  • 78.70.En X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence
  • 78.70.Gq Microwave and radio-frequency interactions
  • 78.70.Nx Neutron inelastic scattering
  • 78.90.+t Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of particles and radiation with condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 78)
  • 79. Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena
  • 79.20.-m Impact phenomena (including electron spectra and sputtering)
  • 79.20.Ap Theory of impact phenomena; numerical simulation
  • 79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
  • 79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission
  • 79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
  • 79.20.Kz Other electron-impact emission phenomena
  • 79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption
  • 79.20.Mb Positron emission
  • 79.20.Rf Atomic, molecular, and ion beam impact and interactions with surfaces
  • 79.20.Uv Electron energy loss spectroscopy
  • 79.40.+z Thermionic emission
  • 79.60.-i Photoemission and photoelectron spectra
  • 79.60.Bm Clean metal, semiconductor, and insulator surfaces
  • 79.60.Dp Adsorbed layers and thin films
  • 79.60.Fr Polymers; organic compounds
  • 79.60.Ht Disordered structures
  • 79.60.Jv Interfaces; heterostructures; nanostructures
  • 79.70.+q Field emission, ionization, evaporation, and desorption
  • 79.75.+g Exoelectron emission
  • 79.90.+b Other topics in electron and ion emission by liquids and solids and impact phenomena (restricted to new topics in section 79)
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