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Глобальное потепление - это...

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результат естественного изменения климата
кто-то его незаметил
средство наживы для экологических организаций



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PACS

PACS is the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme®. PACS numbers, developed by the American Institute of Physics, have been used in Physical Review since 1975 to identify fields and sub-fields of physics. (PACS codes from the Acoustics Appendix are not included in some of the formats listed below.)


90. Geophysics, Astronomy, and Astrophysics
  • 91. Solid Earth physics
  • 91.10.-v Geodesy and gravity
  • 91.10.By Mathematical geodesy; general theory
  • 91.10.Da Cartography
  • 91.10.Fc Space geodetic surveys
  • 91.10.Jf Topography; geometric observations
  • 91.10.Kg Crustal movements
  • 91.10.Lh Photogrammetry
  • 91.10.Nj Rotational variations; polar wobble
  • 91.10.Pp Gravimetric measurements and instruments
  • 91.10.Qm Harmonics of the gravity potential field
  • 91.10.Rn Rheology of lithosphere and mantle
  • 91.10.Sp Satellite orbits
  • 91.10.Tq Earth tides
  • 91.10.Vr Ocean/Earth/atmosphere interaction
  • 91.10.Ws Reference systems
  • 91.25.-r Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; geoelectricity
  • 91.25.Cw Origins and models of the magnetic field; dynamo theories
  • 91.25.Dx Archeomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ey Interactions between exterior sources and interior properties
  • 91.25.Ga Spatial variations: all harmonics and anomalies
  • 91.25.Jc Spatial variations attributed to sea floor spreading
  • 91.25.Le Time variations: diurnal to secular
  • 91.25.Mf Reversals
  • 91.25.Ng Paleomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ph Magnetostratigraphy
  • 91.25.Qi Geoelectricity; electromagnetic induction and conductivity (magnetotelluric effects)
  • 91.30.-f Seismology
  • 91.30.Bi Seismic sources (mechanisms, magnitude, moment frequency spectrum)
  • 91.30.Dk Seismicity: space and time distribution
  • 91.30.Fn Surface and body waves
  • 91.30.Ks Free oscillations (periods less than 12 hours)
  • 91.30.Mv Strong motions and shock waves
  • 91.30.Nw Tsunamis
  • 91.30.Px Phenomena related to earthquake prediction
  • 91.30.Rz Explosion seismology
  • 91.30.Tb Volcano seismology
  • 91.30.Vc Continental crust seismology
  • 91.30.Ye Oceanic crust seismology
  • 91.35.-x Earth's interior structure and properties
  • 91.35.Cb Models of interior structure
  • 91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy
  • 91.35.Ed Structure of the Earth's interior below the upper mantle
  • 91.35.Gf Structure of the crust and upper mantle
  • 91.35.Lj Composition of Earth's interior
  • 91.35.Nm Geochronology
  • 91.35.Pn Tomography of the Earth's interior
  • 91.40.-k Volcanology
  • 91.40.Bp Ash deposits
  • 91.40.Dr Atmospheric effects
  • 91.40.Ft Eruptions
  • 91.40.Hw Lava
  • 91.45.-c Physics of plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Cg Continental margins
  • 91.45.Dh Plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Ei Neotectonics
  • 91.45.Fj Convection currents
  • 91.45.Pt Slow vertical crustal movements (including isostasy and postglacial phenomena)
  • 91.45.Qv Tomography of plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Sx Relations of gravity observations to tectonics and isostasy
  • 91.45.Ty Folds and Folding
  • 91.45.Vz Fractures and faults
  • 91.45.Yb Pluton emplacement
  • 91.50.-r Marine geology and geophysics
  • 91.50.Cw Beach, coastal, and shelf processes
  • 91.50.Ey Ocean bottom processes
  • 91.50.Ga Bathymetry and noncoastal underwater morphology
  • 91.50.Jc Turbidity currents, sedimentation
  • 91.60.-x Physical properties of rocks and minerals
  • 91.60.Ba Elasticity, fracture, and flow
  • 91.60.Dc Creep and deformation
  • 91.60.Ed Crystal structure and defects
  • 91.60.Fe Equations of state
  • 91.60.Gf High-pressure behavior
  • 91.60.Hg Phase changes
  • 91.60.Ki Thermal properties
  • 91.60.Lj Acoustic properties
  • 91.60.Mk Optical properties
  • 91.60.Pn Magnetic and electric properties; environmental magnetism
  • 91.65.-n Geophysical aspects of geology, mineralogy, and petrology
  • 91.65.Br Geochemical cycles
  • 91.65.Dt Isotopic composition/chemistry
  • 91.65.Fw Low-temperature geochemistry
  • 91.65.Hy Organic geochemistry
  • 91.65.Nd Trace elements
  • 91.65.Rg Mineral occurrences and deposits
  • 91.65.Ti Sedimentary petrology
  • 91.65.Vj Major element composition
  • 91.70.-c Information related to geologic time
  • 91.70.Bf Cenozoic
  • 91.70.Dh Mesozoic
  • 91.70.Fj Paleozoic
  • 91.70.Hm Precambrian
  • 91.90.+p Other topics in solid Earth physics (restricted to new topics in section 91)
  • 92. Hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics
  • 92.10.-c Physics of the oceans
  • 92.10.Bf Physical properties of seawater
  • 92.10.Cg Capillary waves
  • 92.10.Dh Dynamics of the deep ocean
  • 92.10.Ei Coriolis effects
  • 92.10.Fj Dynamics of the upper ocean
  • 92.10.Gk El Nino
  • 92.10.Hm Surface waves, tides, and sea level
  • 92.10.Jn Seiches
  • 92.10.Kp Sea–air energy exchange processes
  • 92.10.Lq Turbulence and diffusion
  • 92.10.Mr Thermohaline structure and circulation
  • 92.10.Ns Fine structure and microstructure
  • 92.10.Pt Optical properties of sea water
  • 92.10.Rw Sea ice
  • 92.10.Sx Coastal and estuarine oceanography
  • 92.10.Ty Fronts and jets
  • 92.10.Vz Underwater sound
  • 92.10.Wa Sediment transport
  • 92.10.Yb Hydrography
  • 92.20.-h Interdisciplinary aspects of oceanography
  • 92.20.Bk Aerosols
  • 92.20.Cm Chemistry of the ocean
  • 92.20.Gr Ocean energy extraction
  • 92.20.Hs Anoxic environments
  • 92.20.Jt Biological aspects of oceanography
  • 92.20.Kv Photochemistry
  • 92.20.Lw Photosynthesis
  • 92.20.Mx Physicochemical properties
  • 92.20.Ny Marine pollution
  • 92.20.Pz Bacteria
  • 92.20.Rb Plankton
  • 92.20.Td Radioactivity
  • 92.40.-t Hydrology and glaciology
  • 92.40.Cy Modeling; general theory
  • 92.40.Ea Precipitation
  • 92.40.Fb Rivers, runoff, and streamflow
  • 92.40.Gc Erosion and sedimentation
  • 92.40.Je Evaporation
  • 92.40.Kf Groundwater
  • 92.40.Lg Soil moisture
  • 92.40.Ni Limnology
  • 92.40.Qk Water quality and water resources
  • 92.40.Rm Snow
  • 92.40.Sn Ice
  • 92.40.Vq Glaciers
  • 92.60.-e Meteorology
  • 92.60.Bh General circulation
  • 92.60.Dj Gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves
  • 92.60.Ek Convection, turbulence, and diffusion
  • 92.60.Fm Boundary layer structure and processes
  • 92.60.Gn Winds and their effects
  • 92.60.Hp Chemical composition and chemical interactions
  • 92.60.Jq Water in the atmosphere (humidity, clouds, evaporation, precipitation)
  • 92.60.Ls Ionic interactions and processes
  • 92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols
  • 92.60.Nv Cloud physics; stratus and cumulus clouds
  • 92.60.Pw Atmospheric electricity
  • 92.60.Qx Storms
  • 92.60.Ry Climatology
  • 92.60.Sz Air quality and air pollution
  • 92.60.Ta Interaction of atmosphere with electromagnetic waves; propagation
  • 92.60.Vb Solar radiation
  • 92.60.Wc Weather analysis and prediction
  • 92.70.-j Global change
  • 92.70.Cp Atmosphere
  • 92.70.Er Biogeochemical processes
  • 92.70.Gt Climate dynamics
  • 92.70.Jw Oceans
  • 92.70.Ly Water cycles
  • 92.90.+x Other topics in hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics (restricted to new topics in section 92)
  • 93. Geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques
  • 93.30.-w Information related to geographical regions
  • 93.30.Bz Africa
  • 93.30.Ca Antarctica
  • 93.30.Db Asia
  • 93.30.Fd Australia
  • 93.30.Ge Europe
  • 93.30.Hf North America
  • 93.30.Jg South America
  • 93.30.Kh Large islands (e.g., Greenland)
  • 93.30.Li Arctic Ocean
  • 93.30.Mj Atlantic Ocean
  • 93.30.Nk Indian Ocean
  • 93.30.Pm Pacific Ocean
  • 93.30.Qn Southern Ocean
  • 93.30.Rp Regional seas
  • 93.30.Sq Polar regions
  • 93.30.Tr Temperate regions
  • 93.30.Vs Tropical regions
  • 93.55.+z International organizations, national and international programs
  • 93.65.+e Data acquisition and storage
  • 93.85.+q Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical research
  • 94. Aeronomy and magnetospheric physics
  • 94.10.-s Physics of the neutral atmosphere
  • 94.10.Bw General properties of the high atmosphere
  • 94.10.Dy Atmospheric structure, pressure, density, and temperature (stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere)
  • 94.10.Fa Atmospheric composition (atomic or molecular), chemical reactions and processes
  • 94.10.Gb Absorption and scattering of radiation
  • 94.10.Jd Tides, waves, and winds
  • 94.10.Lf Convection, diffusion, mixing, turbulence, and fallout
  • 94.10.Nh Cosmic dust
  • 94.10.Rk Aurora and airglow
  • 94.20.-y Physics of the ionosphere
  • 94.20.Bb Wave propagation
  • 94.20.Dd Ionospheric structure (D, E, F, and topside regions) including steady-state ion densities and temperatures
  • 94.20.Ee D region
  • 94.20.Gg E region
  • 94.20.Ji F region
  • 94.20.Kj Polar cap ionosphere
  • 94.20.Lk Topside region
  • 94.20.Mm Plasmasphere
  • 94.20.Pp Plasmapause
  • 94.20.Qq Particle precipitation
  • 94.20.Rr Interactions between waves and particles
  • 94.20.Ss Electric fields
  • 94.20.Tt Ionospheric soundings
  • 94.20.Vv Ionospheric disturbances and modifications
  • 94.20.Ww Plasma motion, convection, or circulation
  • 94.20.Yx Interaction between ionosphere and magnetosphere
  • 94.30.-d Physics of the magnetosphere
  • 94.30.Bg Magnetic coordinate systems
  • 94.30.Ch Magnetospheric configuration
  • 94.30.Di Magnetopause
  • 94.30.Ej Magnetic tail
  • 94.30.Fk Plasma motion, convection, or circulation
  • 94.30.Gm Plasma instabilities
  • 94.30.Hn Trapped particles
  • 94.30.Jp Ring currents
  • 94.30.Kq Electric fields
  • 94.30.Lr Magnetic storms, substorms
  • 94.30.Ms Magnetic pulsations
  • 94.30.Tz Waves: propagation and excitation
  • 94.30.Va Magnetosheath; interaction with interplanetary space (including solar wind)
  • 94.80.+g Instrumentation for aeronomy and magnetospheric studies
  • 94.90.+m Other topics in aeronomy and magnetospheric physics (restricted to new topics in section 94)
  • 95. Fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations
  • 95.10.-a Fundamental astronomy
  • 95.10.Ce Celestial mechanics (including n-body problems) (see also 45.50.Pk in classical mechanics of discrete systems)
  • 95.10.Eg Orbit determination and improvement
  • 95.10.Fh Chaotic dynamics
  • 95.10.Gi Eclipses, transits, and occultations
  • 95.10.Jk Astrometry and reference systems
  • 95.10.Km Ephemerides, almanacs, and calendars
  • 95.30.-k Fundamental aspects of astrophysics
  • 95.30.Cq Elementary particle processes
  • 95.30.Dr Atomic processes and interactions
  • 95.30.Ft Molecular and chemical processes and interactions
  • 95.30.Gv Radiation mechanisms; polarization
  • 95.30.Jx Radiative transfer; scattering
  • 95.30.Ky Atomic and molecular data, spectra, and spectral parameters (opacities, rotation constants, line identification, oscillator strengths, gf values, transition probabilities, etc.)
  • 95.30.Lz Hydrodynamics
  • 95.30.Qd Magnetohydrodynamics and plasmas
  • 95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation
  • 95.30.Tg Thermodynamic processes, conduction, convection, equations of state
  • 95.30.Wi Dust processes (condensation, evaporation, sputtering, mantle growth, etc.)
  • 95.35.+d Dark matter (stellar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological)
  • 95.40.+s Artificial Earth satellites
  • 95.45.+i Observatories and site testing
  • 95.55.-n Astronomical and space-research instrumentation
  • 95.55.Aq Charge-coupled devices, image detectors, and IR detector arrays
  • 95.55.Br Astrometric and interferometric instruments
  • 95.55.Cs Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes
  • 95.55.Ev Solar instruments
  • 95.55.Fw Space-based ultraviolet, optical, and infrared telescopes
  • 95.55.Jz Radio telescopes and instrumentation; heterodyne receivers
  • 95.55.Ka X- and &ggr;-ray telescopes and instrumentation
  • 95.55.Pe Lunar, planetary, and deep-space probes
  • 95.55.Qf Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation
  • 95.55.Rg Photoconductors and bolometers
  • 95.55.Sh Auxiliary and recording instruments; clocks and frequency standards
  • 95.55.Vj Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particle detectors; cosmic ray detectors
  • 95.55.Ym Gravitational radiation detectors; mass spectrometers; and other instrumentation and techniques
  • 95.75.-z Observation and data reduction techniques; computer modeling and simulation
  • 95.75.De Photography and photometry (including microlensing techniques)
  • 95.75.Fg Spectroscopy and spectrophotometry
  • 95.75.Hi Polarimetry
  • 95.75.Kk Interferometry
  • 95.75.Mn Image processing (including source extraction)
  • 95.75.Pq Mathematical procedures and computer techniques
  • 95.75.Qr Adaptive and segmented optics
  • 95.75.Rs Remote observing techniques
  • 95.75.Tv Digitization techniques
  • 95.75.Wx Time series analysis, time variability
  • 95.80.+p Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems, archives, etc.
  • 95.85.-e Astronomical observations (additional primary heading(s) must be chosen with these entries to represent the astronomical objects and/or properties studied)
  • 95.85.Bh Radio, microwave (>1 mm)
  • 95.85.Fm Submillimeter (300 &mgr;m–1 mm)
  • 95.85.Gn Far infrared (10–300 &mgr;m)
  • 95.85.Hp Infrared (3–10 &mgr;m)
  • 95.85.Jq Near infrared (0.75–3 &mgr;m)
  • 95.85.Kr Visible (390–750 nm)
  • 95.85.Ls Near ultraviolet (300–390 nm)
  • 95.85.Mt Ultraviolet (10–300 nm)
  • 95.85.Nv X-ray
  • 95.85.Pw &ggr;-ray
  • 95.85.Ry Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particles; cosmic rays
  • 95.85.Sz Gravitational radiation, magnetic fields, and other observations
  • 95.90.+v Historical astronomy and archaeoastronomy; and other topics in fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations
  • 96. Solar System
  • 96.10.+i General, solar nebula, and cosmogony
  • 96.20.-n Moon
  • 96.20.Br Origin, formation, and age
  • 96.20.Dt Features, landmarks, mineralogy, petrology, and atmosphere
  • 96.20.Jz Gravitational field, selenodesy, magnetic fields
  • 96.20.Ka Cratering
  • 96.30.-t Planets, their satellites and rings; asteroids
  • 96.30.Dz Mercury
  • 96.30.Ea Venus
  • 96.30.Gc Mars
  • 96.30.Kf Jupiter
  • 96.30.Mh Saturn
  • 96.30.Pj Uranus
  • 96.30.Rm Neptune
  • 96.30.Sn Pluto
  • 96.30.Wr Planetary rings
  • 96.30.Ys Asteroids (minor planets)
  • 96.35.-j Planetary, asteroid, cometary, and satellite characteristics and properties
  • 96.35.Cp Origin, formation, evolution, and ages
  • 96.35.Er Chemical composition
  • 96.35.Fs Mass, size; gravitational fields; rotation; orbits
  • 96.35.Gt Surface features, cratering, and topography
  • 96.35.Hv Neutral atmospheres
  • 96.35.Kx Ionospheres; magnetospheres
  • 96.35.Mz Interiors
  • 96.35.Na Volcanism and tectonics
  • 96.35.Pb Electric and magnetic fields
  • 96.35.Se Interplanetary comparisons
  • 96.40.-z Cosmic rays
  • 96.40.Cd Interplanetary propagation and effects
  • 96.40.De Composition, energy spectra, and interactions
  • 96.40.Fg Energetic solar particles and photons
  • 96.40.Kk Solar modulation and geophysical effects
  • 96.40.Pq Extensive air showers
  • 96.40.Tv Neutrinos and muons
  • 96.40.Vw Cosmic-ray effects in meteorites and terrestrial matter
  • 96.50.-e Interplanetary space
  • 96.50.Bh Solar and interplanetary electric and magnetic fields (including solar wind fields)
  • 96.50.Ci Solar wind plasma
  • 96.50.Dj Interplanetary gas and dust (including gegenschein and zodiacal light)
  • 96.50.Ek Solar wind interactions with planets, satellites, and comets (for interactions with Earth, see 94.30.Va)
  • 96.50.Fm Shock waves
  • 96.50.Gn Comets
  • 96.50.Hp Oort cloud
  • 96.50.Jq Kuiper belt
  • 96.50.Kr Meteors, meteoroids, and meteor streams
  • 96.50.Mt Meteorites, micrometeorites, and tektites
  • 96.50.Pw Particle acceleration
  • 96.50.Qx Stream-stream interactions
  • 96.50.Ry Waves and discontinuities
  • 96.60.-j Solar physics
  • 96.60.Bn Diameter, figure, rotation, mass
  • 96.60.Fs Chemical composition
  • 96.60.Hv Electric and magnetic fields
  • 96.60.Jw Solar interior
  • 96.60.Ly Oscillations and waves; helioseismology
  • 96.60.Mz Photosphere, granulation
  • 96.60.Na Chromosphere and chromosphere–corona transition; spicules
  • 96.60.Pb Corona; coronal loops, streamers, and holes
  • 96.60.Qc Sunspots, faculae, plages
  • 96.60.Rd Flares, bursts, and related phenomena
  • 96.60.Se Prominences
  • 96.60.Tf Solar electromagnetic radiation
  • 96.60.Vg Particle radiation, solar wind, and solar neutrinos
  • 96.60.Wh Coronal mass ejection
  • 96.90.+c Other topics on the solar system (restricted to new topics in section 96)
  • 97. Stars
  • 97.10.-q Stellar characteristics and properties
  • 97.10.Bt Star formation
  • 97.10.Cv Stellar structure, interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, ages
  • 97.10.Ex Stellar atmospheres (photospheres, chromospheres, coronae, magnetospheres); radiative transfer; opacity and line formation
  • 97.10.Fy Circumstellar shells, clouds, and expanding envelopes; circumstellar masers
  • 97.10.Gz Accretion and accretion disks
  • 97.10.Jb Stellar activity
  • 97.10.Kc Stellar rotation
  • 97.10.Ld Magnetic and electric fields; polarization of starlight
  • 97.10.Me Mass loss and stellar winds
  • 97.10.Nf Masses
  • 97.10.Pg Radii
  • 97.10.Qh Surface features (including starspots)
  • 97.10.Ri Luminosities; magnitudes; effective temperatures, colors, and spectral classification
  • 97.10.Sj Pulsations, oscillations, and stellar seismology
  • 97.10.Tk Abundances, chemical composition
  • 97.10.Vm Distances, parallaxes
  • 97.10.Wn Proper motions and radial velocities (line-of-sight velocities); space motions
  • 97.10.Xq Luminosity and mass functions
  • 97.10.Yp Star counts, distribution, and statistics
  • 97.10.Zr Hertzsprung-Russell, color-magnitude, and color-color diagrams
  • 97.20.-w Normal stars (by class): general or individual
  • 97.20.Ec Main-sequence: early-type stars (O and B)
  • 97.20.Ge Main-sequence: intermediate-type stars (A and F)
  • 97.20.Jg Main-sequence: late-type stars (G, K, and M)
  • 97.20.Li Giant and subgiant stars
  • 97.20.Pm Supergiant stars
  • 97.20.Rp Faint blue stars (including blue stragglers), white dwarfs, degenerate stars, nuclei of planetary nebulae
  • 97.20.Tr Population II stars (horizontal branch, metal poor, etc.)
  • 97.20.Vs Low luminosity stars, subdwarfs, and brown dwarfs
  • 97.20.Wt Population III stars
  • 97.21.+a Pre-main sequence objects, young stellar objects (YSO's) and protostars (T Tauri stars, Orion population, Herbig–Haro objects, Bok globules, bipolar outflows, cometary nebulae, etc.)
  • 97.30.-b Variable and peculiar stars (including novae)
  • 97.30.Dg Low-amplitude blue variables (alpha Cygni, beta Cephei, delta Scuti, delta Delphini, delta Canis Majoris, SX Phoenicius, etc.)
  • 97.30.Eh Emission-line stars (Of, Be, Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf–Rayet, etc.)
  • 97.30.Fi Chemically peculiar stars (Ap, Am, etc.)
  • 97.30.Gj Cepheids (delta Cephei, W Virginis)
  • 97.30.Hk Carbon stars, S stars, and related types (C, S, R, and N)
  • 97.30.Jm Long-period variables (Miras) and semiregulars
  • 97.30.Kn RR Lyrae stars; RV Tauri and PV Telescopii variables
  • 97.30.Nr Flare stars (UV Ceti, RS Canum Venaticorum, FU Orionis, R Coronae Borealis variables, etc.)
  • 97.30.Qt Novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic (eruptive) variables
  • 97.30.Sw Unusual and peculiar variables
  • 97.60.-s Late stages of stellar evolution (including black holes)
  • 97.60.Bw Supernovae
  • 97.60.Gb Pulsars
  • 97.60.Jd Neutron stars
  • 97.60.Lf Black holes
  • 97.80.-d Binary and multiple stars
  • 97.80.Af Astrometric and interferometric binaries
  • 97.80.Di Visual binaries
  • 97.80.Fk Spectroscopic binaries; close binaries
  • 97.80.Gm Cataclysmic binaries (novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and nova-like objects); symbiotic stars
  • 97.80.Hn Eclipsing binaries
  • 97.80.Jp X-ray binaries
  • 97.80.Kq Multiple stars
  • 97.82.-j Extrasolar planetary systems
  • 97.82.Cp Photometric and spectroscopic detection; coronographic detection; interferometric detection
  • 97.82.Fs Substellar companions; planets
  • 97.82.Jw Infrared excess; debris disks; protoplanetary disks; exo-zodiacal dust
  • 97.90.+j Other topics on stars (restricted to new topics in section 97)
  • 98. Stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe
  • 98.10.+z Stellar dynamics and kinematics
  • 98.20.-d Stellar clusters and associations
  • 98.20.Af Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in the Milky Way
  • 98.20.Bg Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in external galaxies
  • 98.20.Di Open clusters in the Milky Way
  • 98.20.Fk Open clusters in external galaxies
  • 98.20.Gm Globular clusters in the Milky Way
  • 98.20.Jp Globular clusters in external galaxies
  • 98.35.-a Characteristics and properties of the Milky Way galaxy
  • 98.35.Ac Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
  • 98.35.Bd Chemical composition and chemical evolution
  • 98.35.Ce Mass and mass distribution
  • 98.35.Df Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
  • 98.35.Eg Electric and magnetic fields
  • 98.35.Gi Galactic halo
  • 98.35.Hj Spiral arms and galactic disk
  • 98.35.Jk Galactic center, bar, circumnuclear matter, and bulge (including black hole and distance measurements)
  • 98.35.Ln Stellar content and populations; morphology and overall structure
  • 98.35.Mp Infall and accretion
  • 98.35.Nq Galactic winds and fountains
  • 98.35.Pr Solar neighborhood
  • 98.38.-j Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in Milky Way
  • 98.38.Am Physical properties (abundances, electron density, magnetic fields, scintillation, scattering, kinematics, dynamics, turbulence, etc.)
  • 98.38.Bn Atomic, molecular, and chemical, and grain processes
  • 98.38.Cp Interstellar dust grains; diffuse emission; infrared cirrus
  • 98.38.Dq Molecular clouds, H2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
  • 98.38.Er Interstellar masers
  • 98.38.Fs Jets, outflows, and bipolar flows
  • 98.38.Gt H I regions and 21-cm lines; diffuse, translucent, and high-velocity clouds
  • 98.38.Hv H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
  • 98.38.Jw Infrared emission
  • 98.38.Kx Intercloud medium (ICM); hot and highly ionized gas; bubbles
  • 98.38.Ly Planetary nebulae
  • 98.38.Mz Supernova remnants
  • 98.52.-b Normal galaxies; extragalactic objects and systems (by type)
  • 98.52.Cf Classification and classification systems
  • 98.52.Eh Elliptical galaxies
  • 98.52.Lp Lenticular (S0) galaxies
  • 98.52.Nr Spiral galaxies
  • 98.52.Sw Irregular and morphologically peculiar galaxies
  • 98.52.Wz Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
  • 98.54.-h Quasars; active or peculiar galaxies, objects, and systems
  • 98.54.Aj Quasars
  • 98.54.Cm Active and peculiar galaxies and related systems (including BL Lacertae objects, blazars, Seyfert galaxies, Markarian galaxies, and active galactic nuclei)
  • 98.54.Ep Starburst galaxies and infrared excess galaxies
  • 98.54.Gr Radio galaxies
  • 98.54.Kt Protogalaxies; primordial galaxies
  • 98.56.-p Local group; Magellanic Clouds
  • 98.56.Ew Elliptical galaxies
  • 98.56.Ne Spiral galaxies (M31 and M33)
  • 98.56.Si Magellanic Clouds and other irregular galaxies
  • 98.56.Tj Magellanic stream
  • 98.56.Wm Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
  • 98.58.-w Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in external galaxies
  • 98.58.Ay Physical properties (abundances, electron density, magnetic fields, scintillation, scattering, kinematics, dynamics, turbulence, etc.)
  • 98.58.Bz Atomic, molecular, chemical, and grain processes
  • 98.58.Ca Interstellar dust grains; diffuse emission; infrared cirrus
  • 98.58.Db Molecular clouds, H2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
  • 98.58.Ec Interstellar masers
  • 98.58.Fd Jets, outflows and bipolar flows
  • 98.58.Ge H I regions and 21-cm lines; diffuse, translucent, and high-velocity clouds
  • 98.58.Hf H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
  • 98.58.Jg Infrared emission
  • 98.58.Kh Intercloud medium (ICM); hot and highly ionized gas; bubbles
  • 98.58.Li Planetary nebulae
  • 98.58.Mj Supernova remnants
  • 98.58.Nk Tidal tails; H I shells
  • 98.62.-g Characteristics and properties of external galaxies and extragalactic objects
  • 98.62.Ai Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
  • 98.62.Bj Chemical composition and chemical evolution
  • 98.62.Ck Masses and mass distribution
  • 98.62.Dm Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
  • 98.62.En Electric and magnetic fields
  • 98.62.Gq Galactic halos
  • 98.62.Hr Spiral arms and bars; galactic disks
  • 98.62.Js Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges
  • 98.62.Lv Stellar content and populations; radii; morphology and overall structure
  • 98.62.Mw Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
  • 98.62.Nx Jets and bursts; galactic winds and fountains
  • 98.62.Py Distances, redshifts, radial velocities; spatial distribution of galaxies
  • 98.62.Qz Magnitudes and colors; luminosities
  • 98.62.Ra Intergalactic matter; quasar absorption and emission-line systems; Lyman forest
  • 98.62.Sb Gravitational lenses and luminous arcs
  • 98.62.Tc Astrometry; identification
  • 98.62.Ve Statistical and correlative studies of properties (luminosity and mass functions; mass-to-light ratio; Tully-Fisher relation, etc.)
  • 98.65.-r Galaxy groups, clusters, and superclusters; large scale structure of the Universe
  • 98.65.At Interacting galaxies; galaxy pairs, and triples
  • 98.65.Bv Small and compact galaxy groups
  • 98.65.Cw Galaxy clusters
  • 98.65.Dx Superclusters; large-scale structure of the Universe (including voids, pancakes, great wall, etc.)
  • 98.65.Fz Galaxy mergers, collisions, and tidal interactions
  • 98.65.Hb Intracluster matter; cooling flows
  • 98.70.-f Unidentified sources of radiation outside the Solar System
  • 98.70.Dk Radio sources
  • 98.70.Lt IR sources
  • 98.70.Qy X-ray sources; X-ray bursts
  • 98.70.Rz &ggr;-ray sources; &ggr;-ray bursts
  • 98.70.Sa Cosmic rays (including sources, origin, acceleration, and interactions)
  • 98.70.Vc Background radiations
  • 98.80.-k Cosmology
  • 98.80.Bp Origin and formation of the Universe
  • 98.80.Cq Particle-theory and field-theory models of the early Universe (including cosmic pancakes, cosmic strings, chaotic phenomena, inflationary universe, etc.)
  • 98.80.Es Observational cosmology (including Hubble constant, distance scale, cosmological constant, early Universe, etc)
  • 98.80.Ft Origin, formation, and abundances of the elements
  • 98.80.Jk Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology
  • 98.80.Qc Quantum cosmology
  • 98.90.+s Other topics on stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe (restricted to new topics in section 98)
  • 99.10.-x Errata and other corrections
  • 99.10.Cd Errata
  • 99.10.Fg Publisher's note
  • 99.10.Jk Corrected article
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